Historical Linguistics gives us great insights into the world we live in. Glottochronology informs us about dialects and how words evolved. Morphophonemics is the study of the phonological realization of the allomorphs of the morphemes of a language. Let us look into the art of semantics, and scrutinize the science of lexicostatistics. Let us try to trace the etymology of the word “India” what it means and where it came from.
Of course the word has different meaning for different people. The meaning of the word has changed over the past several centuries and continues to evolve.
One of the most fascinating quotes that could be a doctoral dissertation in philology or a multi-volume monograph in psycholinguistics comes from a stalwart of the British Empire who know the world really well. His words ring true today, as much as were accurate more than hlaf a century ago.
“India” is as much a country as the Equator: Sir Winston Churchill.
The real name of the country is actually Bharat. This distinguishes it from what many call the British Raj.
Our thesis goes as follows. The land of the Ganges is separate and distinct from the land of the Indus. Pakistanis live on the banks of the Indus. Bhartis don’t, they live on the banks of the Ganges.
Logic and linguistic geography dictate that Ganges residents should be called “Ganghans”.
Morphophonemics informs us that the origins of the word Anglacized as “India” Come from “Hind”. Descriptive linguistics defines the onomastics of the word as follows.
Tabari and other historians inform us that Hind and Sindh were the two regions identified by Arab travelers. The Arab monkier “Sindhi” refers to Sindh–categorized those living on the banks of the Indus. The Arab name “Hindi” those who live on the Ganges.
as per the Times Atlas, there is definately no mention of civilization starting from what is now called India,or the Hind, as termed by the Arab Geographers in the 8th Century AD. Even they classified two entities Sind-wa-Hind, that is Sindh AND Hind. To further broaden the mental horizons of the learned doctor, he is referred to read the History of India 1849 Edition (It was the British who had coined term British India thus uniting Sindh-wa-Hind into one entity). The history of India above quoted is by Sir Henry Elliot. It consists of eight volumes.
As per this book Volume I, ” Balhara, is the King whom the petty states now called India paid tribute. Each prince of the state was master of his home state.” And in the historical records paid tribute to the Sassani Shahs of Iran. When the Arabs took over the Iranian Empire, technically they had become vassals of the new masters. To understand this historical fact the Doctor is now reffered to read the 43 volumes of history of Al-Tabari (Died 928AD). Published by the New York State Press University 1987. To further enlighten him, I would strongly stress that he should read also Tabakat-i-Nasiri of Maulana Usman written 1250-1260AD, translated by H.G.Raverty 1881 Edition.
In the introduction of the book, Maulana Usman describes the evolution of mankind from Prophet Adam downwards. Quoting authorities like, Tawarikh-I-Ajam, the mother source of Shahnama-I-Firdousi & also various works of the, “Zoroastrians” & other authentic informations.”When Kabil slew his brother Habil, Adam had another son born to him, who was names” Shis” which signified in the old language”Given by God” & he became the ruler over adam’s descendents, the parsi, say this Shis was the Gaiu-mart (The first of the Bastaniah/Peshdadi Dynasty) but the muslims insist that it was “Unnush” son of Shish who is the Gaiu-mart” . Thus starts the history of this august ruling house & the various settlements of the clans/tribes in the various parts of the then known world. Dr. Yasmeen-Attorney and journalist, Pakistan
The real name of the country was ”Hindustan“…too hard for British to pronounce. In fact many Hindu mahasaba leaders insisted that the country be called Hindustan.
Dr. Ambedkar discusses Swaraj and quotes Mr. Savarkar. Firstly, the retention of the name Hindustan as the proper name for “lndia”. “The name “Hindustan” must continue to be the appellation of our country. Such other names as India, Hind, etc., being derived from the same original word Sindhu may be used but only to signify the same sense—the land of the Hindus, a country which is the abode of the Hindu Nation. Aryavarta, Bharat-Bhumi and such other names are of course the ancient and the most cherished epithets of our Mother Land and will continue to appeal to the cultured elite. In this insistence that the Mother Land of the Hindus must be called but “Hindustan,” no encroachment or humiliation is implied in connection with any of our non-Hindu countrymen.
Our Parsee and Christian countrymen are already too akin to us culturally and .arc too patriotic and the Anglo-indians too sensible to refuse to fall in line with us Hindus on so legitimate a ground. So far as our Moslem countrymen are concerned it is useless to conceal the fact that some of them are already inclined to look upon this molehill also as an insuperable mountain in their way to Hindu-Moslem unity. But they should remember that the Moslems do not dwell only in India nor are the Indian Moslems the only heroic remnants of the Faithful in Islam. China has crores of Moslems. Greece, Palestine and even Hungary and Poland have thousands of Moslems amongst their nationals. But being there a minority, only a community, their existence in these countries has never been advanced as a ground to change the ancient names of these countries which indicate the abodes of those races whose overwhelming majority owns the land. The country of the Poles continues to be Poland and of the Grecians as Greece. The Moslems there did not or dared not to distort them but are quite content to distinguish themselves as Polish Moslems or Grecian Moslems or Chinese Moslems when occasion arises, so also our Moslem countrymen may distinguish themselves nationally or territorially whenever they want, as “Hindustance Moslems” without compromising in the least their separateness as Religious or Cultural entity. Nay, the Moslems have been calling themselves as “Hindustanis” ever since their advent in India, of their own accord. “But if in spite of it all some irascible Moslem sections amongst our countrymen object even to this name of our Country, that is no reason why we should play cowards to our own conscience. We Hindus must not betray or break up the continuity of our Nation from the Sindhus in Rigvedic days to the Hindus of our own generation which is implied in “Hindustan,” the accepted appellation of our Mother Land. Just as the land of the Germans is Germany, of the English England, of the Turks Turkistan, of the Afghans Afghanistan—even so we must have it indelibly impressed on the map of the earth for all times to come a “Hindustan”—the land of the “Hindus.” Mr. Savarkar
There is a fascinating tale to be told about that fateful date on August 14th, 1947 when the people who lived on the Indus told the British that they wanted to continue to live together, just like they had lived together for the past 5000 years in the Indus Vallay and 7000 years as part of the Mehergarh civilization.
Many think that British “India” was a monolith. In fact it was more than 570 states. The British controlled only 40% of the area. The rest was part of princely states.
This article lists the more than 570 states that comprise the Subcontinent. Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh are only the major players. A discussion of the more than 570 states explains the Subcontinent as it existed in 1940, as it existed in 1947 and as it existed in 1948. The purpose of describing each state is to define the historical linguistics and define the linguistic geography of the region.
Quaid-e-Azam, Mohammed Ali Jinnah said that:
India is not a national state, India is not a country, but a sub-continent composed of nationalities, the two nations being Hindus and Muslims whose culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, name and nomenclature, sense of value and proportion, laws and jurisprudence, social and moral codes, customs and calendar, history and traditions, aptitudes and ambitions, outlook on life and of life are fundamentally different nay in many respects antagonistic. Mohammad Ali Jinnah
Pakistan existed 5000 years ago as the “Indus Valley Civilization.” One of the facts of history was that Alexander thought that the Indus was an ocean, and there was nothing beyond it. The Indus was so wide and so full of water that armies could sometimes not see the other bank. The sciences of paleography, philology, phonetics, phonology inform us about the details of the origins of the word “India”. Let us see what the Greeks and the Persians refered to the area.
The very name of India comes from the river. … the Persians changed the name to ‘Hindu’; and the Greeks dropped the ‘h’ altogether. Chinese whispers created the Indus and its cognates – India, Hindu, Indies. From the time that Alexander the Great’s historians wrote about the Indus valley, spinning exotic tales of indomitable Indika, India and its river tantalized the Western imagination.Hundreds of years later… it might have been logical for the new Muslim state in the Indus valley to take the name ‘India’ (or even ‘Industan’, as the valley was called by an eighteenth-century English sailor). But Muhammad Ali Jinnah rejected the colonial appellation and chose the pious neologism Pakistan, ‘Land of the Pure’, instead. He assumed that his coevals in Delhi would do the same, calling their country by the ancient Sanskrit title, ‘Bharat’. When they did not, Jinnah was reported to be furious. He felt that by continuing to use the British name, India had appropriated the past; Pakistan, by contrast, looked as if it had been sliced off and ‘thrown out’. Empires of the Indus by Alice AlbiniaAlice Albinia guardian.co.uk
The people up the river Indus lived with the people down the river Indus lived together in 3500 BC just as they live together now.
The word “India” comes from “Hind” or “Sind”. It was called that because of the river Sindh. The Arabs used to call all those who lived on the river and byond Sindu or Hindu. The constitutional name of the country is “Bharat”.
The empire of Taimur in the 15th century included Pakistan but not todays “Bharat“. The Malay peninsula has been defiend in many way and included many states and included parts of the Subcontinent and even Iran’s Sistan-Baluchistan. British Indian Empire included many countries of Asia, Afghanistan, Burma, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Aden ane even Iraq.
Many states existed. Some parts of the Subcontinent were under direct British control also.
The boundaries kept on changing. Sometimes it included Aden, Somalia, Iraq, Burma, Nepal, Sri Lanka. At other times it included other parts of Asia. Sometimes it included Afghanistan, at other times it did not. Sri Lanka was part of the British Indian Empire at times.
“Bharat” is the official and constitutional name of the country. “India” was never a country. It was a conglomeration of languages, tribes, states, provinces, East India Company (Company Bahadur) owned poppy fields and British owned lands. The more than 500 states and many countries including Iraq, Somalia, Aden, Burma and others formed the British “Indian” Empire. After 1947 when the British were leaving the states on the West banded together to form Pakistan and the ones in the Gangetic Civilization banded together to form “Bharat” (Constitutional name of “India.”)
The British Indian Empire, informally, the British Raj (r?j, lit. “rule” in Hindi) or simply British India, internationally and contemporaneously, India, was the term used synonymously for the region, the rule, and the period, from 1858 to 1947, of the British Empire on the Indian subcontinent. The region included areas of British India directly administered by the United Kingdom (contemporaneously, “British India”) as well as the princely states ruled by individual rulers under the paramountcy of the British Crown.
The princely states, which had all entered into treaty arrangements with the British Crown, were allowed a degree of local autonomy in exchange for protection and representation in international affairs by Great Britain.The British Indian Empire included the regions of present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, and, in addition, at various times, Aden (from 1839 to 1937), Lower Burma (from 1852) and Upper Burma (from 1886) until 1937, British Somaliland (briefly from 1884 to 1898), and the Straits Settlements (briefly from 1819 to 1867). The British Indian Empire had some ties with British possessions in the Middle East; the Indian rupee served as the currency in many parts of that region. What is now Iraq was, immediately after World War I, administered by the India Office of the British government.The first 100 years were the East India Company years.
The British Indian Empire began in May 1858 when the British exiled Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar II to Rangoon in then independent Konbaung Burma after executing most of his family, thus formally liquidating the Mughal Empire. At the same time, the British abolished the British East India Company and replaced it with direct rule under the British Crown.
In proclaiming the new direct-rule policy to “the Princes, Chiefs, and Peoples of India”.. The Viceroy of India announced in 1858 that the government would honour former treaties with princely states and renounced the “Doctrine of Lapse”, whereby the East India Company had annexed territories of rulers who died without male heirs.
About 40 percent of Indian territory and 20-25 percent of the population remained under the control of 562 princes. In August 1858 the British Parliament abolished the English East India Company and transferred the company’s responsibilities to the British crown. This launched a period of direct rule in India, ending the fiction of company rule as an agent of the Mughal emperor (who was tried for treason and exiled to Burma). In November 1858, in her proclamation to the “Princes, Chiefs, and Peoples of India,” Queen Victoria pledged to preserve the rule of Indian princes in return for loyalty to the crown. More than 560 such enclaves, taking in one-fourth of India’s area and one-fifth of its people, were preserved until Indian independence in 1947.
A discussion of the sovereign and independent Princely States at the time of independence on August 15, 1947 is very pertinent to understand why “India” is a very ephemeral word.
… India unambiguously regards itself as the dominant power in the region. It has waged war with China, three wars with Pakistan, occupied the disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir, annexed the Portuguese enclave of Goa, seized the princely Muslim state of Junagadh, annexed the Himalayan state of Sikkim, exerts political control over Nepal and Bhutan, intervened militarily in Pakistan’s civil war which established Bangladesh, intervenes in the Tamil-Sinhalese violence in Sri Lanka, continues to conflict with Pakistan over the boundary of the Siachen glacier and is adamant in its refusal to implement a series of United Nations resolutions starting in 1948 calling for a plebiscite in Kashmir. In view of these well-defined instances of hegemonic impulse there can be little wonder about Pakistan’s concern that its security technology should match India’s.
In his autobiography, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, analyzed the strategy of the United States to bring India and Pakistan together as a buffer against China. He deftly characterized the Pakistani view of India, “The idea of becoming subservient to India is abhorrent and that of cooperation with India, with the object of promoting tension with China, equally repugnant.”Ralph Braibanti
Pakistan is independent.
Bharat is ridden with the same strife as it has always been. Today the Government of Bharat control about 40% of the area. The Naxalites control hundreds of disctricts as shown in this map.
- The 250 million Untouchable Dalits are in revolt
- The 50 million White widows (who are Hindu widows) are incarcerated in Hindu temples and then sold as prostitutes to earn a living. Source: Indian movied Water.
Afghanistan: Part of the the Indian Empire, it is now an independent country.
Afghanistan today is split by the part controlled by NATO and the other part controlled by the Pashtuns. There are strong tendencies in the Pakhtuns to join Pakistan.
Nepal and Bhutan are now independent kingdoms.
The Subcontinent on the eve of independence in 1947
The following is a boring list but tells a fascinating story about 1947 and tis aftermath. The British did not just leave two dominions in South Asia, she left 570 states which continued to change allegiences to get the best deal. States like Junagarh and Manvadar joined Pakistan, Bhopal wanted to join Pakistan and Hyderabad dfeinately did not want to join Bharat. Hyderabad wanted to stay independent and during the last days of the Nizam had showed some inclination of joining Pakistan.
Princely State Now part of Last (or present) Ruler
Hyderabad Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra & Karnataka, India H.E.H.Nawab Mir Barakat ‘Ali Khan Bahadur.
The areas marked are under the control of the Naxalites
Jammu and Kashmir, India H.H. Dr Karan Singhji
- Azad Kashmir (Poonch District etc.). PakistanMysore Karnataka, India H.H. Maharaja Sri Kantadatta Narasimharaja Wodeyar Bahadur,
- Nepal: Nepal H.M. King Gyanendra of Nepal
- Sikkim: Sikkim, India H.H. Muwong Chogyal Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Tobgyal Wangchuk Tenzing Namgyal Tehri Garhwal Uttarakhand, India H.H. Maharaja Manujendra Shah Sahib Bahadur
- Bhutan: H.M. Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuck Kumaon Uttarakhand, India
- Princely States of the Baluchistan Agency. Ruler Kalat Balochistan, Pakistan Ahmad Yar Khan
- Kharan Balochistan, Pakistan Habibullah Khan
- Las Bela Balochistan, Pakistan Ghulam Qadir Khan
- Makran Balochistan, Pakistan Bai Khan Baloch Gikchi
Deccan: States Agency and Kolhapur Residency
- Princely States of Deccan States Agency and Kolhapur Residency.
- Princely State Now part of Last (or Present) Ruler Akalkot Maharashtra, India Shrimant Rani Sumitra Bai Raje Bhonsle, Rani Saheb of Akalkot
- Aundh Maharashtra, India HH Meherban Shrimant Bhagwant Rao Shripat Rao, Pant Pratinidhi Of Aundh
- Bhor Maharashtra, India Raja Shrimant Sir Raghunathrao Shankarrao Babasaheb Pandit Pant Sachiv
- Janjira Maharashtra, India HH Nawab Sidi Muhammed Khan II Sidi Ahmad Khan, Nawab of Janjira
- Jath Maharashtra, India Lt. Shrimant Raja Vijaysinghrao Ramrao Babasaheb Dafle
- Kolhapur Maharashtra, India HH Shrimant Rajashri Shahu II Chhatrapati Maharaj Sahib
- Bahadur, Maharaja of Kolhapur
- Kurundwad Maharashtra, India Meherban Raja Hariharrao Raghunathrao [Bapusaheb] Patwardhan, co-Raja of Kurundwad Jnr
- Mudhol Karnataka, India HH Shrimant Raja Bhairavsinhrao Malojirao Ghorpade II
- Phaltan Maharashtra, India Major HH Raja Bahadur Shrimant Malojirao Mudhojirao Nanasaheb Naik Nimbalkar IV
- Sangli Maharashtra, India Capt. HH Shrimant Raja Saheb Sir Chintamanrao II Dhundirajrao Appasaheb Patwardhan
- Sawantvadi Maharashtra, India Bhonsale clan
- Savanur Karnataka, India Nawab of Savanur, Abdul Majid Khan II
- Gwalior Residency Princely States of the Gwalior Residency.
These lists contain the name of the Princely State, Now part of, and the Last (or Present) Ruler
- Gwalior Madhya Pradesh, India H.H. Maharajadhiraj Maharaja Shrimant Jyotiraditya Rao Scindia, Maharaja Scindia of Gwalior Varanasi Uttar Pradesh, India Bhadaura Madhya Pradesh, India Garha Madhya Pradesh, India
- Khaniyadhana Madhya Pradesh, India Paron Madhya Pradesh, India Raghugarh Madhya Pradesh, India
- Rampur Uttar Pradesh, India H.H. Nawab Syed Muhammad Kazim ‘Ali Khan
- Bahadur, Nawab of Rampur
- Umri Madhya Pradesh, India
- Madras Presidency Princely States of the Madras Presidency.
These list contain the Princely State, the geogphphical location called “ Now part of” and the Last (or Present) known Ruler
- Cochin Kerala, India Kerala Varma
Banganapalle Andhra Pradesh, India H.H. Nawab Sayyid Fazl-i-’Ali Khan IV Bahadur, Nawab of Banganapalle
Pudukkottai Tamil Nadu, India H.H. Raja Sri Brahadamba Das Raja Sri Rajagopala Tondiman Bahadur, Raja of Pudukkottai Sandur Karnataka, India Shrimant Maharaj Shri Murarrao Yeshwantrao Ghorpade, Hindurao, Mamlukatmadar Senapati, Raja of Sandur Travancore Kerala, India Colonel H.H. Maharaja Raja Ramaraja Sri Patmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Martanda Varma III [Uthradom Tirunal], Maharaja of Travancore
North-West Frontier Princely States of the North-West Frontier.
These list contain the Princely State, the geogphphical location called “ Now part of” and the Last (or Present) known Ruler
- Amb North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan (Nawab) Salahuddin Saeed Khan
Chitral North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan HH Mehtar MUHAMMED MUZAFFAR al-MULK
- Dir North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan Muhammad Shah Khosru Khan
Phulra North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan Ata Muhammed Khan
Swat North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan Miangul Abdul-Haqq Jahanzib
States of the Punjab.
These list contain the Princely State, the geogphphical location called “ Now part of” and the Last (or Present) known Ruler
- Bahawalpur Punjab, Pakistan Sadeq Mohammad Khan V
- Bilaspur Punjab, India H.H. Raja Kirti Chand, Raja of Bilaspur
- Faridkot Punjab, India Lt. H.H. Farzand-i-Sadaat Nishan Hazrat-i-Kaisar-i-
- Hind Raja Bharat Indar Singh Brar Bans Bahadur, Raja of Faridkot
- Jind Haryana, India H.H. Maharaja Satbir Singh ["Prince Sunny"], Maharaja of Jind
- Kalsia Punjab, India Raja HIMMAT SHER SINGH Sahib Bahadur
- Kapurthala Punjab, India Brig. H.H. Maharaja Sri Sukhjit Singh Sahib
- Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala
- Khairpur Sindh, Pakistan George Ali Murad Khan
- Loharu Haryana, India [[H.H. Nawab Mirza Alauddin Ahmad Khan II [alias Parvez Mirza], Nawab of Loharu]]
- Malerkotla Punjab, India
- Mandi Himachal Pradesh, India H.H. Raja Sri Ashokpal Sen, Raja of Mandi
- Nabha Punjab, India H.H. Maharaja Hanuwant Singh Malvinder Bahadur, Maharaja of Nabha
- Patiala Punjab, India Capt. H.H. Maharajadhiraj Shri Amarinder Singh, Maharaja of Patiala
- Siba Himachal Pradesh, India H.H. Raja Dr.Ashok K.Thakur
Sirmur Himachal Pradesh, India Lt. H.H. Maharaja RAJENDRA PRAKASH Bahadur
- Suket / Surendernagar Himachal Pradesh, India H.H. Raja Hari Sen, Raja of Suket”
The states of East Punjab in India want to be indpendent
States of the Rajputana Agency
- Alwar Rajasthan, India HH Maharaja Tej Singh
- Banswara Rajasthan, India .H. Rai Rayan Mahimahendra Maharajadhiraj Maharawalji Sahib Shri Jagmalji II Sahib Bahadur, Naresh Rajya, Maharawal of Banswara.
- Bikaner Rajasthan, India H.H. Sri Raj Rajeshwar Maharajadhiraj Narendra Sawai Maharaja Shiromani Ravi Raj Singhji Bahadur, Maharaja of Bikaner and Head of the Royal House of Bikaner.
- Bundi Rajasthan, India Col. HH Maharao Raja Shri BAHADUR SINGHJI Bahadur
- Dholpur Rajasthan, India H.H. Rais ud-Daula, Sipahdar ul-Mulk, Saramad Rajha-i-Hind, Maharajadhiraja Shri Sawai Maharaj Rana Shri Hemant Singh, Lokendra Bahadur, Diler Jang Jai Deo, Maharaj Rana of Dholpur.
Dungarpur Rajasthan, India H.H. Rai-i-Rayan, Mahimahendra, Maharajadhiraj Maharawal Shri Mahipal Singhji II Sahib Bahadur, Maharawal of Dungarpur.
- Jaipur Rajasthan, India Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II
- Jaisalmer Rajasthan, India HH Maharajadhiraj Maharawal Sir JAWAHIR SINGH Bahadur
- Jhalawar Rajasthan, India .H. Maharajadhiraj Maharaj Rana Shri Chandrajit Singh Dev Bahadur, Maharaj Rana of Jhalawar.
- Jodhpur Rajasthan, India H.H. Raj Rajeshwar Saramad-i-Rajha-i-Hindustan Maharajadhiraja Maharaja Shri Gaj Singhji II Sahib Bahadur, Maharaja of Jodhpur.
- Image:Karauli.svg Karauli Rajasthan, India HH Maharaja Shri GANESH PAL Deo Bahadur Yadakul Chandra Bhal
- Kishangarh Rajasthan, India HH Umdae Rajhae Buland Makan Maharajadhiraja Maharaja SUMER SINGHJI Bahadur
- Kotah Rajasthan, India HH Maharao Shri BHIM SINGH II Bahadur
- Kushalgarh Rajasthan, India Rao HARENDRA SINGH
Palanpur Gujarat, India Maharajkumar Edward Man Sing
- Pratabgarh Rajasthan, India Raja AJIT PRATAP SINGH
- Shahpura Rajasthan, India HH Rajadhiraj SUDERSHAN SINGH
- Sirohi Rajasthan, India HH Maharani Gulab Kanwar Bai
- Tonk Rajasthan, India Nawab Muhammad Faruq Ali Khan
- Mewar Rajasthan, India Maharana Sir Bhupal Singh
- Lawa Rajasthan, India
Gujarat States Agency and Baroda Residency
- Districts of Gujarat
- Laxmi Vilas Palace, BarodaBalasinor
- Devgadh Baria
- Chhota Udaipur
- Sanjeda Mehvassi
States of Central India Agency
- Subhash Marg, Indore
Bhil tribe girls in JhabuaAjaigarh
- Ali Rajpur
- Kothi Baghelan
- Nagod (Unchhera)
States of the Eastern States Agency
Aranchul Pradesh is claimed by China
- Ujjayanta Palace in Tripura
- Palace in Cooch Behar Athmallik
- Cooch Behar
- Koriya (Koriya)
- Pal Lahara
The above article was taken from Wikipedia.
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