The Islamic lands of Pattini have been independent for centuries. The Pattini Muslims converted to Islam between the 7th and the 11th century, not by invading Arab armies but through the traders and sailors who visted the lands.
Colonialism had tried to conquer them. Muslims lands have been subjugated and the Muslims in these lands face discrimination., torture and murder. This has to stop. The struggle to liberate them from tyranny and discrimination. These Muslims are on the anvil of independence. Pakistan is a beacon of hope for these Muslims. The Rohingas live and work in Karachi and many speak Urdu. Pakistanis are playing a key role in the Maldives, in Acheh, in Rohingya and in Pattani. These are our natural bases in Asia and beyond. While we don’t support the violence we do support the sturggle to free them from genocide and extermination.
Pattini was a Malay sultunate. We support Pattni’s amalgamation into Malaysia or its autonomy from Thailand.
As a reaction to cruelty and bias the Pattani separatist insurgency has been taking place in Southern Thailand. The Malay Pattani region is made up of the three southernmost provinces of Thailand. The insurgency has spread over into other provinces of “Thailand”. Although the fight for freedom has been going on for decades in the region, the campaign escalated in 2004–as a reaction to Thai high handedness.
- Beginning in the 1930s, successive Thai military regimes attempted to instill a common nationalism among the country’s population through measures such as a compulsory education program that utilized the Thai language and the celebration of national holidays.
- Malaysian independence in 1959 brought the attention of Thai authorities to the southern Muslim regions.
- This was partly due to Pattani’s former status as a Malayan sultanate which raised concerns about potential links between Malay kin in the two countries. Government programs in the south were implemented by Thais who often did not speak Malay and/or did not understand the population’s Islamic customs and beliefs.
- Further, the region remained economically underdeveloped in comparison to much of the country.
The Thai army has ceded more power to paramilitary forces. Many of the troops are poorly trained and, critics say, further antagonize the Malay-speaking majority in three troubled southern provinces.
Local Muslims have been beaten, killed, or “disappeared” during police questioning and custody. Human Rights Watch has documented at least 20 such disappearances.
The Four star PULO is the most respected and popular separatist group in the region. It has the most political clout and presence in the region. It is a very secretivenetwrok that works under a policy of silence. In recent years Four Star has become increasingly visible and has shown its influence by organizing other separate groups under its wing.
The insurgents have forged links with groups such as the religious-nationalist Moro Islamic Liberation Front in the Philippines and the secular Free Aceh Movement (GAM) in Indonesia. Thai Authorities see southern Thailand’s network of Muslim religious schools as a key source of recruits for an insurgency in which more than 4,000 people have died in the last six years amid the rebels’ bid for an autonomous state.
Each month, about 100 sectarian attacks take place in southern Thailand, down from a peak of approximately 200 a month in 2007, according to Pattani’s Deep South Watch.
“It’s considered the world’s third most intensive Muslim insurgency, after Afghanistan-Pakistan and Iraq,” said Benjamin Zawacki, an activist with Amnesty International, which condemns rights violations on both sides. “And it’s not just going to go away.”
As part of counterinsurgency efforts, the Thai army has ceded more authority to home-defense and paramilitary forces. Many of these troops are poorly trained, critics say, further antagonizing the Malay-speaking Muslim majority in the troubled provinces just north of the border with Malaysia.
Local militia member Apiyud Rattanapinyo, 52, shows off his weaponry at his dingy restaurant in Tan Yong Mas, a town ringed by army checkpoints. The Thai Buddhist has two rifles in his truck, a .357 magnum pistol on his belt, four amulets around his neck and half a dozen teeth missing from his smile.
- Muslims in the border provinces generally have lower levels of educational attainment compared to their Buddhist neighbors. 69.80% of the Muslim population in the border provinces have only a primary school education, compared to 49.6% of Buddhists in the same provinces.
- Only 9.20% of Muslims have completed secondary education (including those who graduated from private Islamic schools), compared to 13.20% of Buddhists.
- Only 1.70% of the Muslim population have a bachelor’s degree, while 9.70% of Buddhists hold undergraduate degreesRattanapinyo, a self-avowed protector of traditional Thai values who said he’s been shot at four times and survived a roadside bomb, believes that a solution lies in forcing Islamic schools to teach more Thai language and culture. Muslim insurgency in Thailand grinds on. April 04, 2010|By Mark Magnier
Patani (Pattani) is known to have been part of the ancient Srivijayan kingdom. It then covered approximately the area of the modern Thai provinces of Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat and much of the northern part of modern Malaysia. The King of Patani is believed to have been converted to Islam some time during the 11th century.
Like many of the small kingdoms in Southeast Asian history, Pattani broke away from an older ancient state. Most did not have their own written language, enjoyed only short periods of real independence and have long since disappeared.
The Patani United Liberation Organization (also spelled Pattani United Liberation Organisation) or PULO is one of the groups calling for a free and independent Patani. This group, along with others, is currently fighting for the independence of Thailand’s predominantly Malay Muslim south.
Muslim resentment against the government’s assimilation policies turned from localized resistance to broad support for the Pattani United Liberation Organization (PULO) by the early 1970s. The PULO rebellion began in the late 1960s with the most intense phase emerging in the early to mid 1970s . The separatist rebels were reported to have been aided by Libya.
In the 1980s, the Thai government sought to address some Muslim demands through a combination of programs that promoted their political participation along with policies to further economic development and religious toleration.
Group members face significant demographic stresses. These include declining public health conditions in relation to other groups, high birth rates, environmental decline due to widespread flooding, and migration abroad for economic reasons. The Muslims are substantially underrepresented in the political and economic arenas due to historical neglect or restrictions, but public policies seek to improve the group’s status (POLDIS03 = 1; ECDIS03 = 1). While there were 25 Muslim politicians in the 1996 Parliament (around 600 seats), group members remain underrepresented at the local and provincial levels.
- Most Muslims are seeking widespread autonomy for the southern provinces where they primarily reside (SEPX = 3).
- A small minority favors the creation of an independent state.
- Other group demands include greater political participation in all levels of decision-making, equal civil rights and status, and better economic opportunities including a larger share of public funds.
- In addition, the Muslims are concerned about protecting their cultural and religious beliefs.
Group members are primarily represented by militant organizations such as the PULO and the Barisan Revolusi Nasional (BRN) but also by conventional national political parties that represent broader interests. A minority is reported to support the activities of rebel organizations. While the Muslims are a factionalized group, there were no reported violent intragroup incidents during the years 1998 to 2003 (COHESX9 = 3). Also, there was no violence between the Muslims and other ethnic groups for the same time period.
- The neighboring state of Malaysia has politically supported the goals of the Thai Muslims, but Kuala Lumpur does not appear to be actively supporting the separatist campaign.
- In 1999 and 2000, Malaysia sought to further economic development in the southern Thai regions by promoting education programs.
Beginning in 2000, violence has increased and become more frequent.
- Muslim actions in the form of demonstrations and strikes first began in the post-WWII period, and in recent years these protests have centered on issues such as the development of an oil pipeline project and political inclusion
- Repression by state authorities eased during the 1998 to 2000 period although attacks were reported against armed rebels along with the use of widespread force against protestors.