“Pakistan manzil nahin–nishan e manzil hai”
Those who are scared by the treacherous bombs or the temporary physical discomforts of the infrastructure must remember that millions gave their lives, property, and life-style to create a new country on the map of the world. We have external enemies who exploit our weaknesses and internal Mir Jaffars who take advantage of their links with the enemies of Pakistan. Pakistan is not unique in this matter, All countries of the world face such issues. The Koreans a couple of decades ago were steeped in penury and civil war. With their country still divided, they endure and some parts prosper. In the 40s China was supposed to be parsed up into small cantons with Shanghai and Manchuria going to Japan, the outlying areas surrounding Hong Kong going to Britain, Tibet coveted by Bharat (aka India), Russia eyeing Xinjiang, and other powers looking for weaknesses. It was a visionary Mao that unified the country by first eliminating the internal dissensions and then defeating the external dangers.
The Ottomans were not so lucky. In 1822 they saw their territories carved up by the European powers and parsed out to the most corrupt and despicable servants of the French and British Raj. Divorced by from their mother country, the Central Asia countries were in a limbo and were eventually gobbled up up by Lenin’s Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Levant was partitioned from mother Turkey and unable to survive as a united Arab entity –it cracked like a windshield, the parched lands splattered into small pieces, Egypt, Algeria, Morocco, Syria, Lebanon. Sudan was then separated from Egypt, and South Sudan separated from Sudan. Lebonon was separated from Syria, Kuwait from the truncated Iraq. From the Maghreb to the Indian Ocean Arab lands were used, abused, raped and gifted by non-owners to Europeans of one sort or another.
Colonial power have thrown philosophies to confound and confuse the Muslims. On an ideological level the new “isms” have some appeal to the English speaking wannabes–because every new “ism” that is thrown their way is profitable in a material sense for them. Obviously a lot of marketing resources are used to develop and then brainwash those that face the onslaught.
Socrates was poisoned not because he supported “democracy”, but because he opposed it. Socrates thought of democracy as “mobocracy”. His dialectic materialism defined mobocracy deteriorating into dictatorship etc. Plato considered women as community property and had no use for the masses. The Greek Republic of Athens was extinguished not because of foreign invasion, but because of the perpetual Peloponnesian wars. Athens repeatedly attacked Sparta. Athens perpetual mimic warfare extinguished “democracy” at home, and eventually led to its absorption into Sparta.
The Mughal Empire was destroyed on the alter of majoritarianism and a new word–”democracy” that had been dug up from Greek archives. Neither the Magna Carta, nor the American constitution contains the word. In fact the American Republic was created specifically rejecting “democracy–as evidenced by the discussion in the Federalist Papers. “coined” in the 40s. “Democracy” was used to dismantle the Ottoman Empire and Mughal Empire.
The Union Jack had connived with the Safron Brigade and promised the Hindus a return to their past –some would argue manufactured glory, if they jilted the Mughal rulers. Enticed with a vision a Ram Raj from Kabul to Bali–they jumped. There were many vision for South Asia in the 40s. While Jinnah was concerned in struggling against majoritarianism in South Asia, he waged a single-handled battle against the twin evils of British Colonialism and Hindu Ram Raj. “Secularism” was used as a pseudonym for “Hindu Rashtra– light”.
Chaudhry Rehmat Ali had a seminal role in describing the vision and the future of the Muslims in South and Central Asia. He has not been given the credit that he deserves. His personality conflicts with Jinnah overshadowed his achievements. It was Rehmat Ali, who not only was the cartographer of Alam Iqbal’s global vision, he also choreographer of the events that led to the creation of Pakistan, and its future vision. The cross-pollination of ideas between Iqbal, Ali and Jinnah is incredible and a subject of several Phds. All three started out as “Indian nationalists”. However there is a caveat. Their “Indian nationalism” has been misread by Jaswant Singh and company who think of Jinnah as some sort of nationalist who wanted Akhand Bahrat.
In actual fact the “nationalism” of Iqbal, Ali and Jinnah–all educated in the West was a reaction to the nationalism of the West. As the Britishers, and Germans waved their flags, all three recoiled and cringed. Iqbal came up with the Hindi Tarana, and Jinnah focused on the political of the day. As Mohammad Ali Jinnah became more and more disenchanted with the Brahman Club called the Indian National Congress, he was constantly guided by the critical analysis of Chaudhry Rehmat Ali–who also was also going through a a metamorphosis. Iqbal started out singing “saray jahan main acha Hindustan hamara’ but ended up with “khanjar hilal ka hai quami nishan hamara”.
Chaudhary Rahmat Ali laid out the vision for all Muslims of South and Central Asia and the Middle East.
- Pakistan is our base
- Dinia is our field of action
- Pakasia is our goal
The League’s indebtedness to Ch Rahmat Ali should not be minimized. over and above what has been said above, one more example may be given.
“..the inconsiderable fact remains, in its fundaments, the clash is neither-religious, nor inter-communal, nor even economic. It is in fact an international conflict between two national ambitions–Muslem for survival and Hindu for supremacy”–Ch Rahamt Ali
“The problem in India is not of an inter-communal character, but manifestly on an international one, and must be treated as such”. M.A. Jinnah
The entire body politics of the Musalmans of South Asia was going through a colossal paradigm shift. After being harassed for a hundred years by the joint forces of the Hindu Mahasabah (Bad Cop) and the Indian National Congress (Good Cop), and facing the wrath of a biased referee (British Raj) the Muslims were searching for survival in a country that has been snatched from them. The loss of Bengal (Orrissa, Bihar and Bengal) to Lord Clive was a the beginning of the decline of Muslims power. The British connived with the Hindus to disenfranchise the Muslims by first imposing the Devanagri script on them–making the Muslims illiterate overnight, and then snatching their kingdoms in Bengal, Awadh and other areas. With the cultural centers in British hands, the outlier areas were left defenseless. The British made sure that they were kept tribal. Thus West Punjab was tribal, as was Balochistan and Khyber-Pakhtunkhawa. Kashmir was of course the “Hilly region of Punjab” not a separate entity.
Dr. Jamil Khan author of Urdu/Hindi an artificial divide adds the following.
- 1786- William Jones creates Aryan/Semitic language race fraud–and tries to build the Hindu-European Aryan brother hood.
- 1800 Ft William College makes Bengali and Hindi as Hindu languages–calls Urdu as Muslim and foreign
- 1816 British starts ” Hindu college” the seed of Calcutta University. Muslim’s were NOT allowed to enroll. A shocking policy –that closed English education to Muslims (See p 237 in Urdu/Hindi an artificial divide).
- By 1870s Hindus, mainly Bengali Hindus monopolized modern English education.
- The Muslim majority of Bengal (including Bihar, Orrisa, Assam) turned into a backward illiterate have-not group.
- 1871 census revealed Muslim majority in East and in West Bengal
- 1884: In late 1881 William Hunter was appointed to conduct an Education Commission into the state of education in India. The Hunter Commission published its detailed report in 1884 and its focus was to explain the failure of Charles Wood’s Education Dispatch of 1854 and to recommend reform. The principal objective of Wood’s Dispatch had been to spread government and mission education to the broader population in India.
- Pathetic condition of Bengali Muslims emerges- Hunter commission (http://www.chaf.lib.latrobe.edu.au/dcd/hunter.htm) investigated the result of “NOT admitting Muslims in the HINDU college” so in 1871 commission revealed the following;
— of 14 Assistant engineers ,50 accountants,and 22 other high positions THERE WAS NO Muslim.
–of 65 over seers there were only 2 Muslims.
- Commission initiated reforms/ reservation etc for Muslims of Bengal AND Hindu Bengalis started opposition–ending in the formation of congress
- Muslims started some movement for education and fight for job (Sir Syed took lead) (Advanced study in the history of modern India, Volume 2 By G. S. Chhabra)
The condition of the Muslims deteriorated precipitously between 1776 and 1857 (Plassy to War of Independence). However as attested to by Jaswant Singh in his book “Jinnah”, the decline of the Muslims from 1857 onwards was even more catastrophic. The Mughal Empire even when it existed in name provided succor and comfort to the Muslims and of course was a huge employer.
Chaudhry Rahmat Ali’s Pakistan National Movement submitted the following:
1) New interpretation of the Muslim history of the subcontinent in terms of three revolutions:
a) Sequel of the first revolution which coincides with the the later Muslim rule, which “reduced our Fraternity from the position of a mighty force to that of a medium factor in the power-politics of the world. Further it punished our Millat for the blunder of following “Dynasticism”, of fraternizing with “Indianism, and of establishing a heterogeneous state in the Continent of Dinia. Furthermore, it eclipsed our nation in Pakistan, Bangistan, and Osmanistan; extinguished our empire in Dinia; upset the equilibrium of Asia to our disadvantage as a people; and started a new cycle in the history of the world”.
b) Sequel of the second revolution after 1857:
“…among other things, it further degraded our Fraternity from a medium force to a minor factor in the power politics of the world, revived ‘Indianism’ to an amazing degree, and reducing the Millat throughout Dinai. broke up her social cohesion and turned her intelligentsia into a mass of wage-slaves and blind careerists”.
“At the end of this revolution, while most other peoples in our position were re-integrating themselves into nation, we were dissolving our Millat herself into Indian castes and communities”.
“..The crisis of Indian Federation which nearly wrote the epitaph of our Millat in 1932, when our “leaders” at the round Table Conferences, succumbing to the pressure and persuasion of the Anglo-Hindu entente, surrendered our 1200 year old national position, renounced our birth-right to distinct nationhood, and accepted the destructive and dishonorable principle of “Indianization” of our Millat throughout the Continent of Dinia.”
c) Third revolution started in 1933 with the Pak plan, “Which was to save us from the national self-destruction on the altar of “Indianism”, safeguard our right to distinct national existence, mark the appearance of de-Indianized Muslim country of nearly 35 million people, protect the heritage of the first three centuries of our history, inflict the first decisive defeat on the forces of “Indianism”, and last but by no means the least, alter for ever the course of history of the Milalt or Dinia, and I dare say Asia”
The goal was to attain sovereign freedom of the Millat and supreme fulfillment of her mission in Pakasia leading to the creation of a new world “a world with its peoples and nations remade, with its continents and countries re-mapped, with its seas and skies recharted, and with its surface and subterraneous wealth re-distributed. It will be a world inspired by new principles and purposes, helped by new developments and discoveries of science, directed by new men and methods, and pledged to new tasks and triumphs.”
2) The second scheme was the promulgation of the following sever commandments of destiny for the “seventh continent of Dinia”.
i) Avoid “Minorityism”
ii) Avow Nationalism
iii) Acquire proportional territory
iv) Consolidate the individual Nations.
v) Coordinate them under “Pak Commonwealth of Nations”
vi) Convert “India” into “dinia”
vii) Organize “Dinia” and its Dependencies into “Pakasia”
It is obvious that the clairvoyant Chaudhary Rahmat Ali had already been to the mountain and seen the other side. Quaid e Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah and Alama Iqbal came to the same conclusion–it just came later. It was the constant pressure of Chaudhry Rahamat Ali that kept the Muslim League on “sirat ul mustqeem” and stopped it from making grave errors.
The need of the hour was a Mohammad Ali Jinnah. Bharati demonization of the man not withstanding, if Jinnah did not exist, he would have been invented. Jinnah was simply a reflection of what was going on around him. His Two Nation theory was actually a play back of the Two Nation Theories of Lai, Haldiram, Gowalkar, and Savarkar. The Hindu Mahasabah was not only bent upon expelling, converting or killing the Muslims at an intellectual level, they had actually begun to operationalize the forced conversion through Shuddi and Sangatham.
Chaudhary Rahmat Ali rose up to the challenge:
“In pursuit of that decision, I first dedicated my life to the cause of the faith, the Fraternity, and the Fatherland, and then drafted the Declaration, ‘Now or Never’ which embodied the first part of my Pak Plan.”
- Recognition of the distinct nationhood of Pakistan
- Creation of a Federation of Pakistan separate from the Federation of India
- Stress on the unlimited possibilities of Islamic Renaissance
- Protection of the heritage from “further Indianization”.
He had the utmost respect for Iqbal.
“Sir Muhammad Iqbal that immortal poet of Islam, whose poetry served as a beacon light in the darkest period of our history, and whose message will ever help us on the way to our destiny” Chaudhary Rahmat Ali.Chaudhary Rahmat Ali
Chaudhry Rehmat Ali’s timely vision arrived at an opportune time. After being booed in the Indian National Congress by an upstart who had recently arrived in South Asia from a foreign land, Mohammad Ali Jinnah– a very senior member of the INC had left South Asia and had gone to London in disgust. What compelled him to come back.
It was Alama Iqbal?
This is where it starts getting more and more interesting. While Jinnah was waging a constitutional struggle against colonialism and hegemony, Chaudhry Rehmat Ali free of any logistical constraints was free to visualize the future of South Asia and Central Asia. While many in South Asia were stuck in the mental quagmire of “India”–Chaurdhry Rehmat Ali was looking out for a future of the Musalmans. He clearly saw that Pakistan was a beginning—he saw a new perception and clearly defined it.
“In the five Northern Provinces of India, out of a total population of about forty million, we, the Muslims constitute about thirty million. Our religion, culture, history, tradition, economic system, laws of inheritance, succession and marriage are basically and fundamentally different from those of the people living in the rest of India. The ideals which more our thirty million brethren-in-faith living in these provinces to make the highest sacrifices are fundamentally from those which inspire the Hindus. These differences are not confined to the broad basic principles far from it. They extend to the minutest details of our lives. We do not interline; we do not inter-marry. Out national customs and calendars, even our diet and dress are different.”
“Hindus and Muslims are the followers of two essentially and fundamentally different religious systems”. For Chaudhary Rahmat Ali India is a not a single country nor a home of one single nation. It is a Subcontinent where peoples of different nationalities live. India is a “a state created by the British”. This alternative of a separate Federation “will lay the foundation of a peaceful future for this great subcontinent; and should certainly allow the the highest development of each of these two peoples without one being subject to another”.
“The boundary of Pakistan are is taken up to the right bank of the Jamuna. The Muslims of Pakistan are in their national home. The Muslims in Hindustan went there are conquerors. Therefore Hindustan was the Muslim Empire, where for nine hundred years they ruled over a vast native majority. But when they lost this colonial empire, as distinct from Pakistan, the Muslims who settled in these Muslim Imperial Dominions of Hindustan became a minority community in Hindustan. At the time of the fall of their Empire, had the Muslims possessed leaders with vision and courage they could have preserved the national as well as territorial integrity of their homelands in Pakistan. In that Federation, Pakistan was made only an administrative unit of,and therefore under the Indian Federation. Thus the Pakistanis were to be reduced to a mere minority community belonging to the Hindu nation and subordinated to the supremacy of Hindustan. The Pakistan National movement aims at reintegrating of Muslims in Pakistan. We know that within Hindustan we will be a minority community but, outside it, a virile nation of forty-two million”.
1) Conversion of South Asia into Dinia (a continent based on religion)–with several Muslim homelands. Pakistan was only one of them in the Western ramparts of South Asia. Bang-Islamistan was an independent homeland in the East, and there were others. The remaining land would be Hindustan.
2) Looking to build a millat across South and Central Asia. Ali had a vision for the future, after Pakistan had been formed
3) Just like Ghazni and Babur had looked East and South, Ali clearly looked toward Dushambe and Ferghana–Westwards towards Central Asia and the Middle East to create PakAsia.
4) PakAsia would be the future of Central Asia led by Pakistan.
Ch Rehmat Ali in a memorable speech to a meeting of the Supreme Council of the Pakistan National Movement held at Karachi on 8th March 1940. But the original plan can be traced to 1937, soon after the enactment of the 1935 Constitution, when “he announced the name of Bang-e-Islamstan for Bengal and Assam, and that of Osmanistan for Hyherabad-_Deccan and addressed a message to the Muslims in those lands through his selected men, whom he deputed to launch unofficially his plans for their political reconstruction along national line.” The justification for Bang-e-Islam, which he gave in his 1940 speech, speaks of the right of self-determination on the basis of the majority of Muslim population. But “the Anglo-Hindu entente has denied the right by reducing our numerical majority to a political minority and our national status to the position of a community. Here he urged for “the creation of a Bengal national movement”–”a national organization in every national stronglhold”, because it is “imperative that in the future reconstruction of our people which can now only be in widely separated lands, we must take care to make every unit as firm in its foundations, as strong in structure, and as self-sufficient in every respect as possible”. This strengthening of another national unit was necessary because “weakness in our national lands led to greater weakness throughout our Empire and hat in its turn caused an all embracing disaster” .
Ch Rahmat Ali justified Osmanistan on a different ground: “Osmanistan is a part of our patrimony: and as such her future is inseparably bound up with that of the Millat”.
Chaudhary Rahmat Ali was a bit ahead of the curve on separatism and independence–a few light years ahead of the League. Ali had already determined that South Asia could not be a country–so he defined it as “Dinia” refusing to call it “India”. It took the Muslim League a few more years to come to the same conclusion.
Chaudhry Rahmat Ali made his proposal of ten nations in 1940 and disapproved of any “Indianess” or “All India” anything…”I have called for the fundamental changes in the basis and in the aims of our existing “All India” institutions, changes–that would once de-Indianize and Diniaize them in spirit and outlook as well as in action and scope. Bush such is the relentless pressure and persuasion of the vested, vicious interests that these institutions have blindly continued to function along the old lines of “All Indianism” and to confine their aims to the nationhood of Pakistan and Bangistan”
In view of the impending meeting of the All India Muslim League to be held in the second half of March in 1940 at Lahore in which the famous Lahore Resolution was to be passed, Ch Rahmat Ali’s speech assumes great importance. From “separate Muslim Federation of five units in the North west” to the position “to rid ourselves of Indianism” Ch Rahmat Ali has gone far ahead in his basis for the solution of the Indian issue…his Pakistan National Movement had prepared the ground for his earlier proposal of Muslim majority (and hence national status) in the Northwest. The same principle of Muslim majority applied equally well to Bengal. The All India Muslim League, in its Lahore Resolution, also opted for the same principle and hence emphatically demanded “independent states in the North Western and Eastern Zones of India”. The League completely omitted Osmanistan because that did not come within the meaning of the principle. On the other hand the League Resolution refrained from using the word “Pakistan”, but instead added the phrase “geographically contiguous units” which later led to the partition of the territories in the “national lands” of Ch Rahmat Ali who had never though of any partition and less the “home” territory. Nay his argument of millat versus “indianism”…led to different directions.
“Again it is very same realization that now impels me to submit that, if we really wish to rid ourselves of “Indianism”, to reastablish our nationhood as distinct from “India”, and to link our national domains to on another as South Asiatic countries, we must scrap All India Muslim League as such and create instead alliances of the nations of Pakistan, Bengal and Osmanistan”.
His Millat at this time is seen…as an alliance of Pakistan Bengal…This higher concept of an international orgnaization which Ch Rahmat Ali proposed in his speech led him to be aware of the “menace of Indianism”…he saw it from the viewpoint of the Hindu jati and the Islamic Millat and advised the Muslims “to sever all ties with India”, to save the Millat from ‘Indianism’ and to server “Pax Islamica”.
This is the Muslim perspective and our maps should depict this perspective. Our maps should show the Muslim perspective, not the Bharati or British perspective. The location of Pakistan on the regional map must show our future, not our past.
Maps are one of the most important instruments of presenting visions. Chaudhry Rehamt Ali did that brilliantly. He displayed how the future would look like. European maps of the world show Britain in the middle. American maps show the US in the middle.All Western maps depict “Northern” countries bigger and larger and Southern countries as smaller. Thus Greenland a small island is shown as big as Africa–and minor Canadian islands are displayed as big as several Southern countries. Pakistani maps are impoverished and nasty.
Not only has Bharat overwhelmed the media with inaccurate maps, but Pakistani news channels still also depict the inaccurate Pakistan maps. Two years ago Rupee News started the “Global Campaign to correct Pakistani maps”. Our first target was Geo TV. After faxing dozens of letters, and emailing hundreds of notes, many of the anchors corrected the maps. Most notably Hamid Mir placed a correct map of Pakistan in the background. Geo uses many correct maps, but its news division lapses and uses Bharati maps. Aaj uses correct maps, and Dunya is the worst offender–for obvious reasons. Dunya represents the 5th column.
This is how Pakistani maps should be presented
Pakistan maps are based on the British Empire which wanted to show the British Indian Empire as a single unit. The same maps serve the purpose of the Bharati government.
“Pakistan was not the product of the conduct or misconduct of the Hindus. It had always been there; only they were not conscious of it. Hindus and Muslims, though living in the same towns and villages, had never been blended into one nation; they were always to separate entities.” Quaid e Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah
Pakistan is part of the ECO, and Pakistan maps should depict the future of Pakistan as PakAsia
Chaudhry Rehmat Ali’s vision, Iqbal’s foresight, and Jinnah’s work in not depicted in the current maps of Pakistan. If Pakistan is to look forward and move forward–the maps must begin at the 30° 00 N (longitude) parallel and move North. The latitude shown should be 70º 00 E and West of that. There is no point in showing all of Bharat in Pakistani maps. that gives a false picture to the youth. Pakistan maps should show Pakistan and the all the Central Asia Republics, the Middle East and Turkey. This is the future of Pakistan.
PakAsia is the future of Pakistan. Maps must reflect the future, not the past
Chaudhry Rehmat Ali described PakAsia in many publications that evolved over the ages. Ahmed Hasan Dani was prolifically described the evolution of Ali in his book “History of Pakistan”. In fact the entire body of knowledge of Ahmed hasn Dani is discovering the lost archeology and links of Pakistan to Central Asia–described as PakAsia by Chaudhry Rahmat Ali.
Chaudhry Rahmat Ali proposes the name PakAsia for the future of Pakistan. “understand that unlike the terms Arabsia, Australasia, Malaysia, and Caucasian, the term Pakasia has no racial significance; yet like them all, it has a both cultural and a eogrpahical connotation. Culturally, it connotes the part of Asia wherein our Pak culture is, actually or potentially, predominant; and geographically, it includes the Continent of Dinia and its dependencies, i.e. Alam Islands, Ameen islands, Safistan, Ceylon Nasaristan, Ashar Islands, and Balus Islands…cover every interest of he Millar–spiritual, strategic, of provinces or of states–and therby protect her whole heritage in the Continent of Dinia and its dependencies…the plan blessed by Allah and, of followed faithfully, pre-ordained to lead us within the next fifteen years to the achievement of Pakistan, or Bangistan, and of Osmanistan; before the end of the century to the creation of Siddiqistan, or Faruqistan, of Haideristran, or Muinistan, of Maplistan, of Saflistan, and or Nasaristan,; and in far less time then we took to build our present heritage, to the conversion of the Subcontinent of India into the continent of Dinia, and to the organization of the Continent of Dinia and its dependencies into the orbit of Pakasia”.
Al Ansar Al Haq says:
We should now focus on the discussion “Pak Asia” which does not necessarily mean a Pakistani Asia but certainly the principals of our founding fathers restoring the Islamice legacy of Asia.
This does not mean a Talibanisation of Asia but can also mean something as simple as a economic block, a more integrated Asia certainly for the sake of Islamic Central Asia maintaining good relationships with China, Russia and Europe linked to an Islamic Middle East and Maghreb.
Ahmed Hasan Dani says describes it is succinctly as follows:
“At the end the basic aims of the Pakistan National Movement, as defined in his book may be briefly summarized:
- Spiritually, the completion of the mission in Pakistan and in the rest of Pakistan
- Nationally, to live within Pakistan under Pak Laws, and to reintegrate this Pakistan with Iran, Afghanistan, and Turkharistan in order to recreate the original Pakistan; the recovery of all Pak treasures, and transfer to Pakistan of the remains of Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar.
- Manually to consolidate and integrate the Muslim nations into Pak Millat, and unite them into Pak Commonwealth of Nations.
- Fraternally, the creation of a Pan-Islamic world organization to bring together all Muslim nations and communities, all Muslim countries and regions in the world.
- Continentally, the elevation of all “communities in the country of India” “to sovereign nationhood in their respective homelands, and the conversion of the “Country of India” into the “Continent of Dinia”.
- Culturally, the organization of the Continent of Dinia and its dependencies into the Cultural orbit of Pakasia.;
- Internationally, the recognition of the equality of status of all nations and countries in the world–a recognition which is absolute pre-requisite for the peace, progress and prosperity of Mankind.
Ahmed Hasan Dani further elucidates us with the following analysis of Chaudhry Rehmat Ali and his ideas:
In this final analysis, Ch Rahmat Ali becomes a Pan-Islamist, though of a different type, in which he sees the fulfillment of his concent of Millat–a concept which he borrowed from Iqbal but took much beyond Iqbal in its application. Iqbal tried to see it in the perspective of the League of Nations after learning the lesson of nationalism from recent Turkish example. Ch. Rahmat Ali focused on Pakasia and evolved a Commonwealth of Pak Nations probably after the pattern of British Commonwealth.While Iqbal’s ideas remain to be worked out in future, Ch. Rahmat Ali has given to a complte systhesis as he understood the history…he calls for Non-Indian nations as opposed to the Indian nation of the Caste-Hindus. For all of them, he seeks territorial home and finally be visualizes an international order.
Sources and References: Ahmad Hasan Dani “History of Pakistan” published 2008 (ISBN 969-35-2020-3). Sang e Meel Publications. http://www.sang-e-meel.com
Pakistan–The Fatherland of the Pak Nation by Chaudhry Rahmat Ali. 1940
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