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This article will be udated periodically. UPdated April 25th, 2008
We will closely watch this breaking news, and monitor it very closely.
- Reports stating Pakistan to cut F-16 order ‘likely a rumour‘, says MoD source
- A source from the Pakistan Ministry of Defence (MoD) has refuted media reports. Janes Defense Weekly
Per Janes Defense Weekly, the news item about the Pakistani refusal to purchase additional planes has been denied. What is amazing is that the original story was not refuted directly by Pakistan. Why did the Pakistani news media reported the reduction of the number of F-16s that it had planned to order? Pakistan had ordered 36 (18+18) F-16s from General Dynamics, USA. After the first 18, Pakistan had the option to buy an additional 18. According the news items planted in the press Pakistan had chosen not to exercise that option. According to press reports, the official “company line” is that the number of planes have been reduced because of financial constraints.
However the timing of the story about the cancellation is curious. Both China and Pakistan have set goals to increase mutual trade to the $15 Bilion mark. In China President Musharraf announced that the goal will be met that the number will be over $16.5 Billion. No business deal had been announced. The F-16 cancellation comes right on the heels of President Musharraf’s visit to China where ostensibly Pakistan has been offered some advanced Chinese hardware. The head of the Chinese Air Force and the Defense Minster of China are in Pakistan right now and the Foreign Minister is arriving in a weeks time. According to new reports Pakistan has been offered the Chinese 4th general J-11 (comparable F-15 Eagle, F-16 Fighting Falcon and the U.S. Navy F-18 Hornet.) with eventual transfer of the plane’s production to Pakistan. The J-11 is the latest and most versatile aircraft in the PLAAF.
Russia infuriated with Chinese export copis of Su-27 jet fighters: Russia’s attempts to settle down on China’s arms market have been made to no avail, the Nezavisimaya Gazeta reports. Chinese pirates have entered a new level of activity. They mastered the production technology and developed the Chinese production of Su-27 analogues with a view to subsequently export http://english.pravda.ru/russia/economics/22-04-2008/104975-russia_china-0
Russia has threatened to sue China for copying its Sukhoi Su-27SK fighters and its pirate production for export to Pakistan and other Third World countries at much cheaper prices, according to a media report. Russia may sue China over pirated fighter Press Trust of India / Moscow April 22, 2008
Russia has officially notified China that the production of J11 (fighters), a copy of Russian Su-27SK, is the violation of inter-governmental agreements. Moscow has vowed to launch legal procedures for the protection of its intellectual property,” leading daily ‘Nezavisimaya Gazeta’ reported today. Press Trust of India / Moscow April 22, 2008
The American F-16s offered to Pakistan come with no transfer of technology and is a black-box sale where Pakistan has no control over what it can do with the planes. It is to be noted that the deal offered to India by General Dynamics comes with local production of the plane and transfer of technology.
The J-11s are a great trade for the F-16s (block 50).
PAF 2008: Today the PAF is a manufacturer, assembler, purchaser and exporter of planes and services. The Pakistan Airforce of 2008 is totally different enterprise than the Pakistan Airforce of 1980 when it purchased the F-16s as a matter of pride. That pride turned to dust when the US imposed dilibitating sanctions on Pakistan. Pakistan which had paid $450 million cash for the planes, never got the planes, nor did she ever get the money back General Dynamics unable to deliver the planes, parked them in a desert and eventually the USAF picked them up.
TOO MANY STRINGS: The F-16s, with their intrusive inspection regime and cumbersome restrictions on where they can be kept are considered more a liability than an asset for the PAF. The contract of the F-a6 says that the planes have to parked separate from the other planes of the PAF, and the planes in theory at least have been tinkered with so that they cannot carry Nuclear weapons. The PAF is also scared of secret US “kill buttons” on the planes which would render them useless in combat.
Gone are the days when every taxi, truck, bus and van in Pakistan used to have an F-16 sticker on it and Pakistanis boys grew up playing with models of the plane. Today one see the JF-Thunder on the buses, vans and trucks along with a slogan “Pak-Cheen dosti Zindabad” (Long live Pakistan-China friendship).
The pride in the Pakistan Airforce today is not the F-16 but the JF-17 Thunder–a plane with ever increasing amount of indigenously produced content. It is unimaginable that the new government would irritate the PAF and the army by reducing the order for the F-16s. Recent Indian news reports state that Russia is going to sue China for exporting the F-11s to Pakistan and other countries. What is curious about this story is that PAF had yet to publicly acknowledge the purchase of F-11s from China! The new F-11 are based on the one seater Su 27s, but also the newer one is based upon the two seater Su-30. China purchased the Su 27s, but later canceled the order after its version of the Su-27 was successful.
The reduction of the F-16 order should be seen in the context of the earlier reduction in the F-16 order. At that time the excuse that was given was the earthquake. However a few weeks later the PAF announced the purchase of F-10s from China. Now the same pattern is being repeated. The advantage of purchasing the planes from China is that China transfers the technology so that Pakistan can eventually build them in Pakistan. The local production of the plane unleashes the traditional Pakistani entrepreneurial creativity which helped it build an atomic bomb and indigenous missiles. Chinese planes do not come with crippling restrictions on usage and political strings. For example after Pakistan used her F-104s against India in the 1965 war, this act of self defense was deemed a violation of the contract. Even though Pakistan was the founding member of SEATO and CENTO, and had two executive defense agreements with the USA, an arms embargo was imposed on Pakistan. Heavily dependent on the USA for arms, the Pakistani government had to fight the 1971 war under a US arms embargo.
With this history, it is no wonder that the PAF now prides itself on its own capabilities and does not want to be dependent on US arms and planes. The PAF now has the infrastructure to make the plane, and can purchase enough technology in the open market to make a plane very competitive with the usually superior American technology. The PAF seems to be following a triage strategy:
1) Buy a few high profile technologically advanced planes from the USA and Europe
2) Build the build of its Airforce on indigenously produce planes.
3) Update the avionics and advanced fathers of its indigenous planes y reverse engineering the purchased planes
The Chinese have been very successful with this strategy. The Pakistani armed forces have also been successful with this strategy learned by purchasing, and then improving missiles, UAVs and tanks etc.
STOCKHOLM, Sweden, April 9 (UPI) — The lack of significant new arms orders for Russia from China could be caused by its efforts to further develop its own arms industry, dissatisfaction with delays on outstanding orders, or disappointment with the quality of Russian weapons delivered in recent years. Despite this, China is still rumored to be interested in the Russian offer of Su-33 and Su-35 combat aircraft for use on Chinese aircraft carriers. However, there are also reportedly divisions within Russia over whether to meet Chinese requests for advanced Russian weapons systems. There are concerns that China will only buy limited numbers of such systems with a view to “copying” them. PAUL HOLTOM UPI Outside View Commentator
The military cooperation between Russia and China has not been very successful during the recent couple of years. Russia’s arms exports to China dropped by 62 percent. In addition, Russia does not sign any new defense cooperation contracts with China. For the time being, the two countries simply execute the previously signed contracts, the sum of which total about $1.8 billion. It is worthy of note that China used to be a major buyer of Russian-made military hardware. At present moment, China gradually Pravda
With the JF-17 Thunder safely in its pocket and under serialized production (25-50 planes per year), the PAF is not looking at additional planes to make. This is a huge export market with more than 30 countries interested in buying the planes. With the sale of planes, Pakistan also gets access to the Airforces of other countries and gets access to bases and lucrative service and upgrade contracts. Pakistan is ahead of India on this because the Indian LCA has been grounded and is plagued with delays and failures.
China is using the domestic WS-10A engine to replace the Russian Saturn Lyulka AL-31FN. The new WS-10A, reported to be an impressive 13,200kg thrust turbofan. At the Zhuhai 2002 show a photo was released of a J-11 alleged to have been modified to test one WS-10A. However, according to Russian media, in November of 2006, China has intentions to upgrade the current Flanker fleet’s engines and is planning to source the engines either from Saturn-Lyulka with their 117S engine, a development of the Lyulka AL-31F engine, which is planned to be the powerplant for Indian Su-30MKIs, or from Salyut, with their AL-31F-M1 engine, an improved variant of the AL-31F engine.
SU-30 STRIKE FIGHTER
MAKER: SUKHOI, RUSSIA
TYPE: SUPERSONIC STRIKE FIGHTER
LENGTH: 71.9 FEET
SPAN: 47.8 FEET
RANGE: 1,900 MILES
HEIGHT: 15.5 FEET
WEIGHT: 85,300 POUNDS MAX
ENGINE: TWO LYULKA SATURN AL-31F TURBOFAN
TOP SPEED: MACH 2.2 AT ALTITUDE
WEAPON LOAD: 17,600 POUNDS ON 12 HARDPOINTS
30 MM CANNON
I/R AND RADAR HOMING AIR TO AIR MISSILES
R-73, R-77, PL-10, PL12
LASER GUIDED BOMBS
AS-17 KRYPTON ANTI-RADAR MISSILE (KH-31)
The PLA SU-30 MKK is equipped with the Tikhomirov NIIP N001VE radar which can range up to 90-110 km in counter-air mode, 70-80km against ground targets and 200-250 km against large ships. The MKK2 version is possibly equipped with the Phazotron Zhuk-M-S which has a 140km in counter-air mode, and 300km against large ships. The SU-30 can be equipped with the Kupol M400 side-looking radar pod that can control up to 10 fighters. The MKK3 is equipped with a Tikomirov “Panda,” radar that has a 190 km counter air mode or may be equipped with the new version of Zhuk-M-S.
The SU-30 is equipped with an extensive electronics suite including the OLS-30 IRST (Infrared Search and Track) system that has a 80-100km range. SU-30 pilots are equipped with the Surya-K Helmet Sight for close in air-to-air combat. SU-30 also have the Sapsan-E ir/laser targeting pod for ground attack, a APK-9 data link pod for Kh-59ME missile, A-737 satnav system, the L-150 Pastel RWR Radar Warning system, a 96x chaff/flare dispenser, the Sorbitsya ECM and the Spektr data link.
J-11 SU-27SK FLANKER
SUKHOI SU-27SK “FLANKER” EXPORT VERSION SOLD TO CHINA AND VIETNAM MANUFACTURED BY: SUKHOI STATE DESIGN BUREAU MOSCOW, RUSSIA TYPE – SUPERSONIC STRIKE FIGHTERLENGTH: 71.9 FEET SPAN: 48.2 FEET RANGE: 1,900 MILES (WITHOUT AIR REFUEL)HEIGHT: 19.4 FEETWEIGHT: 50,000 POUNDSENGINE: 2 AF-35 AFTERBURNING TURBO FANSTOP SPEED: MACH 2.3WEAPON LOAD: 13,670 POUNDS I/R AND RADAR HOMING AIR TO AIR MISSILES R-73 AND R-77 LASER GUIDED BOMBS AIR LAUNCHED VERSION SS-N-22 SUNBURN AS-17 KRYPTON ANTI-RADAR MISSILE (KH-31) SU-30 VERSION EQUIPPED FOR NUCLEAR WEAPONS DELIVERY
SUKHOI SU-34 “FLANKER” TWIN SEAT STRIKE VERSION OF SU-27
ZVEZDA KH-31 SUPER-SONIC MISSILES IN RED (CENTER FOREGROUND)
The J-11 is the most advanced fighter currently in service with the PLAAF. The J-11 is roughly equal in performance and capability to the western aircraft that face it including the F-15 Eagle, F-16 Fighting Falcon and the U.S. Navy F-18 Hornet.
The PLAAF currently operates 78 single-seat Flanker fighters and four twin seat training versions. PLAAF factories signed a deal with Sukhoi to assemble 150 of these advanced fighters and build under license another 350.
China has also concluded a deal to purchase up to two hundred SU-30 two seat long range strike bomber versions of the FLANKER family from Sukhoi. The first thirty SU-30 fighters were delivered to the PLAAF in the fall of 2000 and there are an estimated 76 in active service. The PLAAF SU-30 bombers are equipped to carry Chinese made nuclear weapons.
The Chinese military is outfitting its Russian-made Su-30 fighter bombers with C-801 anti-ship cruise missiles. The upgrade will give China’s air force a major new strike capability against ships. The C-801 is modeled after the French Exocet anti-ship missile.
Pakistan reduces F-16 order to 18 fighters Wednesday, 23 April , 2008, 12:46
Islamabad: Financial constraints have forced Pakistan to halve to 18 the number of F-16 combat jets it is buying from the US, said a media report on Wednesday.
Pakistan had earlier sought to buy 36 F-16 Block 50/52 aircraft for $5.1 billion, which included associated weapons, spares and upgrading of an earlier fleet purchased in the 1980s.
“The decision to reduce the order by half would also halve the cost of the aircraft and that of the weapons associated with them,” Dawn reported on Wednesday.
Pakistan, however, will still have to spend $1.3 billion on the mid-life update and modification of the F-16A/B aircraft purchased earlier. Engine modifications and purchase of equipment for the old fleet will cost another $151 million.
Quoting sources, said the new aircraft will be fully equipped with weapons and facilities that come with a F-16 Block 50/52 aircraft. The planes will be capable of carrying nuclear and non-nuclear weapons.
The US will, however, have the right to conduct frequent inspections and inventory checks with relation to the aircraft
The J-11 (Jianji-11 or Jian-11) is a licensed copy of the Russian Sukhoi Su-27SK air-superiority fighter aircraft built by Shenyang Aircraft Corporation (SAC). The initial batches of the J-11 were identical to the single-seat Su-27SK, but the later batches had increased portion of Chinese-made components. SAC is currently developing an “indigenised” upgraded variant known as J-11B, which was based on the J-11/Su-27SK airframe but equipped with Chinese-developed avionics and weapon suite. SAC is also planning to power future productions of the J-11 with the indigenous WS-10A turbofan engine.
An ‘indigenised’ J-11B in flight test. The J-11B was developed from the J-11/Su-27SK and fitted with Chinese-made avionics (Source: Chinese Internet)
The People’s Republic of China (PRC) became the first non-CIS country to operate the Su-27SK and Su-27UBK fighters in the early 1990s. In 1995, Russian agreed in principle to allow the PRC to build the Su-27SK single-seat fighter locally under license. In 1996, Sukhoi Company (JSC) and SAC entered into a contract worth US$2.5 billion for the co-production of 200 Su-27SK fighters as the J-11. Under the terms of the agreement, Sukhoi/KnAAPO would supply the aircraft in kit form to be assembled in SAC. It was reported that Russia also agreed to help the PRC gradually increase the portion of Chinese-made content on the J-11, so that SAC could eventually produce the aircraft interpedently.
The first kit-built J-11 rolled out at SAC in December 1998, but the full-scale production did not commence until 2000 due to technical problems. Russian sources confirmed that 48 aircraft had been produced by 2002, and another 48 between 2002 and 2003. However, SAC hinted as early as 2000 that not all 200 J-11s would be built. In November 2004, Russian media reported that the J-11 production had stopped after about 100 examples were built. According to the report, the Chinese side had requested Sukhoi Company to stop deliveries of the assembly kits. The report citing a source within the PLAAF suggested that the basic variant Su-27SK/J-11 no longer met the PLAAF requirements.
A number of reasons may have contributed to the stop of the J-11 production. Firstly, the co-production agreement did not include the transfer of avionics and engine technologies, and the Chinese-built J-11 would have to continue relying on the Russian supply of these systems. Secondly, the Russian-made fire-control system on the J-11 is not compatible with the Chinese missiles. As a result, the PLAAF had to import additional R-27 (AA-10) MRAAM and R-73 (AA-11) SRAAM from Russia to support the operations of its J-11s. Thirdly, as a single mission air superiority fighter, the Su-27SK/J-11 could only perform secondary attack missions, and only with “dumb” munitions that include a range of free-fall bombs and unguided rockets.
Sukhoi Company JSC actively marketed its Su-27SKM to the PRC in 2003. The Su-27SKM was a modernised multi-role variant derived from the Su-27SK, but with an improved Zhuk-27 (or N001VEP on the later variant) fire-control radar, and an upgraded cockpit featuring multifunctional displays similar to that of the Su-30MK. However, the aircraft was rejected by the PLAAF in favour of an ‘indigenised’ variant of the J-11.
A SAC-assembled J-11 (closest) flying in formation with three Su-27SK fighters of the PLAAF. The J-11 can be distinguished by its slightly darker livery (Source: Chinese Internet)
In mid-2002, SAC revealed its intention to build an upgraded multirole version of the J-11 by revealing a mock-up aircraft carrying various types of air-to-air and air-to-surface missiles. Russian sources also confirmed that SAC was pursuing a multirole variant of the J-11 with much greater Chinese-made content. This variant was designated J-11B.
At least three examples (#523, #524, and #525) of the J-11B have been delivered to the China Flight Test Establishment (CFTE) for flight test and evaluation since 2006. The aircraft was based on the Su-27SK/J-11 airframe, but with the following modifications:
An indigenous multifunctional pulse-Doppler fire-control radar reportedly capable of tracking 6~8 targets and engaging 4 of them simultaneously;
An indigenous digital flight-control system;
A Chinese copy of the Russian OEPS-27 electro-optic search and tracking system;
A strapdown INS/GPS navigation system;
A ‘glass’ cockpit featuring four colour multifunctional displays (MFD) and a wide-angle holographic head-up display (HUD);
The aircraft could carry the Chinese-made PL-8 IR-homing SRAAM and PL-12 (SD-10) active radar-homing MRAAM for air-to-air combat. While the PLAAF currently has the capability for two-target engagement using the Su-27/-30 and R-77 (AA-12 Adder) combination, successful integration of the PL-12 on the J-11B would likely provide a genuine multi-target engagement capability. The J-11B is also expected to have enhanced air-to-surface attack capabilities with the indigenous precision strike ammunitions such as LT-2 laser-guided bomb, the LS-6 precision-guided glide bomb, the YJ-91 (Kh-31P) anti-radiation missile, and the KD-88 air-to-surface missile.
During the 6th Zhuhai Air Show held between 31 October and 5 November 2006, China revealed first official details about the indigenously developed WS-10A ‘Tai Hang’ turbofan engine. The engine had already been successfully tested on a modified Su-27K fighter and possibly on some J-11 airframes too. The engine is understood to be similar to the Russian Lyulka-Saturn AL-31F turbofan engine in both technology and performance. However, it is unclear whether the WS-10A has already been fitted on the ‘indigenised’ variant of the J-11.
A J-11B prototype in flight test, carrying a Chinese indigenous PL-8 IR-homing short-range AAM on its left wing pylon. The basic variant J-11 fitted with the Russian fire-control system cannot fire Chinese-made weapons (Source: Chinese Internet)
Close-up of the forward fuselage of the J-11B. The aircraft is believed to be fitted with a Chinese copy of the Russian OEPS-27 electro-optic search and tracking system located in front of its windscreen (Source: Chinese Internet)
The multifunctional pulse-Doppler fire-control radar of the J-11B is seen here being tested on a specially modified Y-8 testbed ’079′ belonging to the CFTE (Source: Chinese Internet)
The modernsied ‘glass’ cockpit of the J-11B featuring several coloured multifunctional displays (MFDs) (Source: Chinese Internet)
A PLAAF test pilot with a Russian-style helmet sits in the J-11B cockpit. The newly designed wide-angle holographic head-up display (HUD) is clearly visible (Source: Chinese Internet)
There has been speculation that Shenyang is currently developing a two-seater version of the J-11B, possibly designated J-11BS. The aircraft was said to be similar to the Su-27UBK fighter-trainer, but fitted with Chinese-made powerplant, avionics, and weapon suite.
The assembly line of the J-11B at SAC. Note a two-seater variant can be seen in the background (Source: Chinese Internet)
J-11 [Su-27 FLANKER]
Su-27UBK / Su-30MKK/ Su-30MK2
Codenamed `Flanker’ by NATO, the J-11 [Su-27 / Su-30MKK / Su-30MK2] is a multi-role fighter bomber and air superiority aircraft which can also be used in the maritime strike role. The Flanker has an operational radius of around 1500 km, and is equipped with an inflight refuelling facility extending their radius by another 500 km. Although normally configured for conventional operations, the J-11 could provide China with a high-performance nuclear-capable strike aircraft.
The acquisition of Su-27, after China had attempted for years to develop the J-10 aircraft with equivalent technology to perform similar functions, demonstrates a lack of confidence in domestic industrial capabilities.
Since China received its first 4th-generation Su-27 fighter in 1992, training, tactics and operational concepts progressed slowly as China integrated the new technologies and capabilities into the force structure. This protracted learning phase has allowed China to prepare for the introduction of larger numbers of 4th-generation aircraft into its inventories. By 2002 new Su-27s and Su-30s had been more rapidly integrated into operational units. Meanwhile, air combat tactics continue to evolve and training became more advanced.
Jane’s Defence Weekly reported on March 31, 2004 that by early 2004, China had received some 154 Sukhoi aircraft (this number does not include roughly 100 aircraft built in China), mostly Su-27SK fighters, and that by the end of 2004 roughly 273 Sukhoi fighters will be in service.
In 1991 China purchased an initial batch of 24 single-seat SU-27s for about $1 billion which were delivered in late 1992 and based at Wuhu Air Base, 250 kilometers west of Shanghai. In May 1995 China purchased a second batch of 24 SU-27 aircraft through Russia’s main state-run arms exporting company Rosvooruzheniye. These were delivered in April 1996 and based at Suixi Air Base in Southern China. The 48 Su-27-type aircraft include 36 one-seat Su-27SK manufactured in Komsomolsk-on-Amur and 12 two-seat Su-27UB manufactured in Irkutsk, worth a total of 1.7 billion dollars.
In February 1996 Moscow and Beijing reached a $2.2 billion agreement for Chinese co-production of the Sukhoi Su-27. Under the initial agreement China would produce up to 200 aircraft [without the right to reexport the jets to third countries] from Russian-made components over three to five years. The total cost of the contract is $1.5 billion, including $650 million for technical documents and $850 million for parts, instruments and equipment provided by Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aviation Enterprise imeni Yuriy Gagarin [KnAAPO], which is to deliver around 30 percent of all completing parts for 200 Chinese SU-27SK jets. Russia has licensed coproduction of Su-27s to the Shenyang Aircraft Company, which can produce fifteen to twenty per year. In the period 1998-2000 Shenyang planned to assemble only 15 Su- 27SK fighters of the 200 permitted under the terms of the contract. The first two aircraft built at Shenyang flew at the end of 1998. By 2004, China had only received components kits for 95 aircraft, as a contract covering the additional 105 kits was still pending.
In mid-1999 Russia agreed to sell as many as 72 of the front-line Sukhoi-30 variant of the SU-27 jet to China, in addition to the Su-27 aircraft previously agreed to. As a result of the 7th session of the Russian-Chinese commission on economic cooperation held in Beijing in August 1999, the two countries reached a general agreement on the deliveries to China of the Su-30MKK two-seat multipurpose fighters, worth a total of about two billion dollars. Under the agreement, Russia will start delivery of about 40 the jets to China between 2000 and 2002. The Sukhoi Design Bureau developed state-of-the-art Su-30MKK (modernised, commercial for China) especially for the specific requirements of the Chinese military. At the same time, negotiations began for Moscow to grant a licence for the production of another 250 Sukhoi-30 fighters, though it is unclear whether this production would be in addition to or instead of the licensed production of the SU-27.
At the end of 1999 it was anticipated that the Irkutsk aviation industrial association will deliver to China a total of 28 training and combatant Su-27UB fighters. The delivery would be implemented to repay the state debt, and 8 planes would be delivered to China within the year 2000, 10 planes in the year 2001 and 10 planes in the year 2002.
It was announced in Moscow in December 2000 that Russia had supplied China with 10 two-seat Su-30MKK fighters for the first time. Russia had contracted to supply China 40 Su-30s in 1999, and Russian officials have said that they expect the Chinese to procure another batch of 40 Su-30s. There were also reports that China may be given the licence to produce the aircraft in large numbers.
The Su-30MKK for China is different in details from the basic Su-30MK. In June 1999 Russia agreed to sell 72 of these front-line Sukhoi-30 jet fighter-bombers to China. The aircraft building enterprise in Komsomolsk-on-Amur (KnAAPO) is likely to become the main supplier of a large lot of Su-30MKK fighter jets to China. The cost of one Su-30MKK fighter jet is estimated at $35 million – $37 million. At the same time, negotiations began for Moscow to grant a licence for the production of another 250 Sukhoi-30 fighters.
In late July 2001 China signed a contract with the Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aviation Production Association to supply upward of $2 billion worth of Su-30 MKK ground-attack planes. One report put the number of jets at 38 aircraft. The factory’s 5,000 workers would be working until 2003 to fulfill the terms of the contract. Russia had already delivered between 70 and 100 Su-27s to China.
In July 2002 it was reported that China would buy around 30 Su-30MK2 naval fighters, on top of the 80 Su-30MKKs it bought in 1999 and 2001. The deal was estimated it to be worth at least $1.2 billion. The Su-30MK2, a modified version of the Su-30MKK, is a naval striker equipped with X-31A anti-ship missiles. Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aviation Production Association is the maker of the plane.
Buying 30 more Sukhoi fighters would give China a total of as many as 400. China took delivery of 26 Su-27SK/UBKs in 1992 and another 22 in 1995. In 1996 China signed a contract to produce 200 Su-27SKs under license.
On February 14, 2003 the Washington Times reported that China had received its latest shipment of SU-30MK2s from Russia. Jane’s Defence Weekly reported on 31 March 2004 that China had accepted 6 aircraft, and that China would receive 18 additional aircraft by the end of 2004, for a total of 24 (6 per quarter).
However the integration of the Su-27 into the Chinese Air Force has proven difficult, particularly with respect to training and maintenance costs.
In March 1996, the PLA Air Force and other PLA elements conducted joint-service exercises in the Taiwan Strait. During these exercises the JL-11 [Su-27] fired a variety of air-to-ground rockets, and also dropped four deceleration bombs similar to the US MK82 Snake-Eye, the first time that such bombs have been shown publicly. These exercises clearly stressed the bombing capabilities of the JL-11, suggesting that radar and computer software improvements to its air-to-surface attack capacities may have incorporated the advanced SU-35 fire control equipment and functions to provide high accuracy munition delivery.
The Singh Doctrine for Akhand Bharat Fails Gandhi’s racism: Criticism of Mohandas Gandhi by his grandsons and other Indians
Why is Urine drinking popular in India? From Mohandas Gandhi to PM Desai to common man.
How Buddhism was exterminated from South Asia? 600BC-400AD Reviving Hinduism in Buddhist lands: The Hindu extremists use the Safron Swastika flag instead of the tri-colored flag of India. (see Hindu unity dot org)
Indian penury: The reality vs. the Bollywood marketing gloss:
————————————— India as World Power 1 Extremist Hindus show power using the Swastika in triple entendre–as an ancient Hindu symbol, reverence for Hitler & sign of Anti-Western Indian hatred
Superpower India Pt 2 Extremist Hindus revere Hitler and use the Swastika as the Indian flag
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