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India cannot escape the problems of Kashmir. The more India tries to stamp out the insurgency, the more it grows. Despite many discussions, no concrete steps have been taken to resolve the issue by the Indian side. This year huge demonstrations proved that the insurgency is local and cannot be eliminated by the 800,000 Indian soldiers. All efforts have been made to do CBMs so that the cultural onslaught on Pakistan can take its toll in creating Akhand Bharat. Srinagar pics: PM Singh faces Pakistan flags, black banners & strikes in Indian Occupied Kashmir
Freedom to Kashmir: Arundhati Roy on “Brave New India”. The recent visit of PM Singh to Occupied Kashmir elicited the usual reaction:-protest, slogans of “Pakistan Zindabad“, and “We want freedom.”
The last six decades of India-Pakistan relations have proved the “step-by-step” approach to be a dismal failure. Whereas what is needed is a quantum jump, what New Delhi and Islamabad have opted for is a slow belly crawl.
It was sometime in the 1980s that I ran into the late Sardar Swaran Singh, Indian external affairs minister (1964-66 and 1970-74) at a conference in Vienna.
What, I asked him, had really taken place during the six rounds of Kashmir talks he had held with Zulfikar Ali Bhutto between December 1962 and May 1963? Why, despite American and British sponsorship and backing of these talks, had it not been possible to settle the dispute?
He asked me if I spoke Punjabi, which I told him I did. “So let me explain it to you in Punjabi,” he said. In his old village, he told me, during his early youth, there lived a pretty girl named Banto, with whom all the boys were quite taken, but she showed no interest in any of them.
However, from time to time, to make their hearts jump with joy (mumdyaan da ranjha razi karan layee), she would lift her laacha just a little and expose a bit of an ankle before disappearing from view. This kept the boys happy for some time. That is exactly, he explained, what we do to Pakistan on Kashmir. When it becomes insistent, we flash a bit of the Kashmir ankle which keeps it for some time. Kashmir by Khalid Hasan
The protest came hours after Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh began a two-day visit to the troubled Himalayan region, where tens of thousands of people have been killed since a revolt against New Delhi’s rule broke out in 1989.SRINAGAR • Police in Kashmir’s main city fired tear gas yesterday to disperse several thousand demonstrators protesting against alleged human rights violations by Indian security forces.
The protest came hours after Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh began a two-day visit to the region, where tens of thousands of people have been killed since a revolt against New Delhi’s rule broke out in 1989.
The demonstration erupted weeks after the Association of Parents of Disappeared Persons (APDP), an independent group, said they discovered nearly a thousand unmarked graves in cemeteries in 18 villages close to the Line of Control.
More than 3,000 people led by Kashmir’s chief cleric, Mirwaiz Umar Farooq, marched through streets of Srinagar, carrying banners reading: “Stop human rights violations.”
“We want freedom, long live Pakistan,” protesters shouted.
Half a dozen people were injured after police fired teargas shells at stone-throwing protestors.
Police said they later escorted Farooq, also chairman of the All Parties Hurriyat Conference, safely home and put him under house arrest.
“We ask Indians and the world community, whose graves are these? … Human rights violations in Kashmir have increased and we will continue protest,” Farooq said in his Friday sermon before leading the protest demonstration.
Four other Hurriyat leaders were also placed under house arrest as a preventative measure earlier, said police officer Shabir Ahmed. “We are anticipating law and order problems,” he said.
The leaders had planned demonstrations — demanding an inquest into alleged human rights abuses in the troubled region — during the visit of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.
The APDP estimates up to 10,000 people have gone missing following their arrest by security forces during the nearly two-decade-old militancy in Kashmir, and says many of the missing could have ended up in these unmarked graves. Authorities in Kashmir have denied the allegations, saying such reports were intended to malign Indian security forces.
Amnesty International has appealed to Indian authorities to urgently investigate unmarked graves in north Kashmir. —Agencies. Mirwaiz, other Kashmiri leaders under house arrest
INDIA’S COMMITMENT OF PLEBISCITE FOR
THE PEOPLE OF KASHMIR
“Our view which we have repeatedly made public is that the question of accession in any disputed territory or State must be decided in accordance with wishes of people and we adhere to this view.” · JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. (in telegram No. 402-Primin-2227 dated 27 October 1947 to Prime Minister of Pakistan repeating telegram addressed to Prime Minister of United Kingdom).
“In regard to accession also, it has been made clear that this is subject to reference to people of State and their decision.” · JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. In telegram No.413 dated 28 October 1947 addressed to Prime Minister of Pakistan).
“ …….the people of Kashmir would decide the question of accession. It is open to them to accede to either Dominion then.” · JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. (in telegram No.255 dated 31 October 1947 addressed to Prime Minister of Pakistan).
“Kashmir should decide question of accession by plebiscite or referendum under international auspices such as those of the United Nations.” · JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. (Letter No. 368-Primin dated 21 November 1947 to Prime Minister of Pakistan).
“We are anxious not to finalize anything in a moment of crisis and without the fullest opportunity to be given to the people of Kashmir to have their say. It is for them ultimately to decide.
“And let me make it clear that it has been our policy all along that where there is a dispute about the accession of a state to either Dominion, the accession must be made by the people of that state.” · JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. (Broadcast to the Nation: “All India Radio”: 2 November 1947).
“The issue in Kashmir is whether violence and naked force should decide the future or the will of the people.” · JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. (Statement in Indian Constituent Assembly; 25 November 1947).
“We have not opposed at any time an over-all plebiscite for the State as a whole…….”. · JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. (in telegram dated 16 August 1950 addressed to the U.N. Representative for India and Pakistan: S/1791 : Anne 1(B).
“The most feasible method of ascertaining the wishes of the people was by fair and impartial plebiscite.” · JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. (Joint press communique of the Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan issued in Delhi after their meeting on 20 August 1953).
“People seem to forget that Kashmir is not a commodity for sale or to be bartered. It has an individual existence and its people must be the final arbiters of their future.” · JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. (Report to the All-India Congress Committee, 6 July 1951; The Statesman, New Delhi, 9 July 1951).
“Kashmir is not a thing to be bandied about between India and Pakistan but it has a soul of its own and an individuality of its own. Nothing can be done without the goodwill and consent of the people of Kashmir.” JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. (Statement in the Indian Parliament, 31 March 1955).
“We had given our pledge to the people of Kashmir, and subsequently to the United Nations; we stood by it and we stand by it today. Let the people of Kashmir decide.” · JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. (Statement in the Indian Parliament, 12 February 1951).
“We have taken the issue to the United Nations and given our word of honour for a peaceful solution. As a great nation, we cannot go back on it. We have left the question for final solution to the people of Kashmir and we are determined to abide by their decision.” · JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. (Amrita Bazar Patrika, Calcutta, 2 January 1952).
“If, after a proper plebiscite, the people of Kashmir said, ‘We do not want to be with India’, we are committed to accept that. We will accept it though it might pain us. We will not send any army against them. We will accept that, however hurt we might feel about it, we will change the Constitution, if necessary.” · JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. (Statement in the Indian Parliament, 26 June 1952).
“I want to stress that it is only the people of Kashmir who can decide the future of Kashmir. It is not that we have merely said that to the United Nations and to the people of Kashmir; it is our conviction and one that is borne out by the policy that we have pursued, not only in Kashmir but every where.
“I started with the presumption that it is for the people of Kashmir to decide their own future. We will not compel them. In that sense, the people of Kashmir are sovereign.” · JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. (Statement in Indian Parliament, 7 August 1952)
“The whole dispute about Kashmir is still before the United Nations. We cannot just decide things concerning Kashmir. We cannot pass a bill or issue an order concerning Kashmir or do whatever we want. JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. (The Statesman, 1 May 1953)
“Leave the decision regarding the future of this State to the people of the State is not merely a promise to your Government but also to the people of Kashmir and to the world.” · JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. (In telegram No. 25 dated 31 October 1947 addressed to Prime Minister of Pakistan).
“In regard to accession also it has been made clear that this is subject to reference to people of State and their decision.” · JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. (In telegram No.413 dated 28 October 1947 addressed to Prime Minister of Pakistan).
“That Government of India and Pakistan should make a joint request to U.N.O. to undertake a plebiscite in Kashmir at the earliest possible date.” · JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. (In telegram No. Primin-304 dated 8 November 1947 addressed to Prime Minister of Pakistan).
“We have always right from the beginning accepted the idea of the Kashmir people deciding their fate by referendum or plebiscite………..”
“Ultimately, the final decision of settlement, which must come, has first of all to be made basically by the people of Kashmir…….” · JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. (Statement at Press Conference in London, 16 January 1951, The Statesman, 18 January 1951).
“But so far as the Government of India are concerned, every assurance and international commitment in regard to Kashmir stands.” · JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. (Statement in the Indian Council of States; 18 May 1954).
Kashmir in the United Nations
- Resolution 38 (194 adopted by the Security Council at its 229th Meeting held on 17 January 1948
- Resolution 39 (194 adopted by the Security Council at its 230th Meeting held on 20 January 1948
- Draft Resolution presented by the President of the Security Council and the Rapporteur on 6 February 1948
- Resolution 47 (194 adopted by the Security Council at its 286th Meeting held on 21 April 1948
- Resolution 51 (194 adopted by the Security Council at its 312th Meeting held on 3 June 1948
- Resolution adopted by the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan on 13 August 1948
- Resolution adopted by the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan on 5 January 1949
- Proposal in respect of Jammu and Kashmir made by General A.G.L. McNaughton, President of the Security Council of the United Nations on 22 December 1949
- Resolution 80 (1950) adopted by the Security Council at its 470th Meeting held on 14 March 1950
- Resolution 91 (1951) adopted by the Security Council at its 539th Meeting held on 30 March 1951
- Resolution 96 (1951) adopted by the Security Council al its 566th Meeting held on 10 November 1951
- Resolution 98 (1952) adopted by the Security Council at its 611th Meeting held on 23 December 1952
- Resolution 122 (1957) adopted by the Security Council at its 765th Meeting held on 24 January 1957
- Draft Resolution presented by Australia, Cuba, U.K. and U.S.A. on 14 February 1957
- Resolution 123 (1957) adopted by the Security Council at its 774th Meeting held on 21 February 1957
- Draft Resolution presented by Australia, Columbia,Philippines on 16 November 1957
- Resolution 126 (1957) adopted by the Security Council at its 808th Meeting held on 2 December 1957
- Draft Resolution submitted by Ireland to the Security Council on June 22, 1962
- Statement of the President of the Security Council (French Representative) made on the 18 May 1964 at the 1117th Meeting of the Council (Document No. S/PV. 1117, dated the 18 May l964) summarizing the conclusion of the debate on Kashmir
- Resolution 209 (1965) adopted by the Security Council at its 1237th Meeting held on 4 September 1965
- Resolution 210 (1965) adopted by the Security Council at its 1238th Meeting held on 6 September 1965
- Resolution 211 (1965) adopted by the Security Council at its 1242nd Meeting held on 20 September 1965
- Resolution 214 (1965) adopted by the Security Council at its 1245th Meeting held on 27 September 1965
- Resolution 215 (1965) adopted by the Security Council at its1251st Meeting held on 5 November 1965
- Resolution 303 (1971) adopted by the Security Council at its1606th Meeting held on 6 December 1971
- Question considered by the Security Council at its 1606th, 1607th and 1608th Meetings held on 4,5 and 6 December 1971
- Resolution 307 (1971) adopted by the Security Council at its 1616th Meeting held on 21 December 1971
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