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This is one of a series of article son the Indian Intelleigence agency commonly known as RAW (Research and Analysis Wing).
Espionage: Espionage, euphemistically called the second oldest profession being mentioned in the Indian Vedas, one of the ancient of the human texts. References to espionage are also discernible in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Babylon, Assyria, Greece and China. Secret Agencies in ancient India were not conceived of as an instrument of oppression but as a tool of governance. Secret agents were considered as ‘eyes of the king’.
History and Theme: Master strategist, Chânakya alias Kautilya’s (literally meaning ‘crooked’) taught the art of dishonesty, cunning, insincerity, plot and plan, and stabbing and was adopted in Toto by India and its chief intelligence agency, the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW).
While laying the foundation stone of RAW, India’s late Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi approvingly quoted Louis F Hallis, when she said that its objectives should be the, “Ability to get what one wants by whatever means: eloquence, reasoned arguments, bluff, tirade, threat or coercion, as well as, by arousing pity, annoying others, or making them uneasy”. RAW is basically a Secret Service established to perform secret operations based on the Chanakyan principles of deception and cunningness. It has successfully destabilized neighboring countries, disintegrated independent states and backed the most notorious guerrilla organizations to achieve its ends.
If it is compared to other intelligence agencies of the region, it emerges as an aggressive, cold-blooded and ruthless institution, engaged in the most chilling deeds.
Modes & method of Espionage: Chânakya advocated that “the weak should be subjugated by means of conciliation and gifts, the strong by means of dissension and force”.
Motivation and Recruitment: Motivation of persons to cater intelligence is directly proportionate to their weakness for sex and money, besides the burning desire of revenge or voracious hunger for power. The Spymasters of ancient India exploited these weaknesses to their fullest advantage, and even the modern intelligence agencies heavily depend on these considerations.
Selection of Targets: Chânakya, in a very understated manner and with an intimate knowledge of human psychology, selected his targets in foreign lands depending on their weaknesses and motivation. His selection and target area were,
- Those who are dissatisfied with the rulers or had been humiliated or exiled.
- Who have not been compensated for their expenditure?
- Those that have been deprived of their rightful inheritance to office.
- Whose women have been molested by force?
- Who were wrongly imprisoned?
- Whose property had been confiscated?
- Who are prone to blackmail due to some weakness?
Double Agent: Chânakya suggested that secret agents should not refuse pay from the targets for working with them as their employees.
- A ‘Double-Agent’ is a spy who works for the opposition while pretending loyalty to those who employ him.
- ‘Double-Agents’ were used to winning over the confidence of their adopted masters by sacrificing a few exposed, treacherous, disaffected or inefficient spies.
- ‘Double-Agents’ were used for creating open conflict and confusion among the confederates of the enemy.
- They floated false documents, got them seized from the possession of the enemy’s army and thus weakened the enemy.
- This technique is an indispensable facet of agent-running and was extensively practiced in ancient India.
Payment & emoluments: Encouragement of secret agents with money and honor was considered an imperative necessity. The sources were paid both in cash and kind, besides receiving extraordinary courtesies and favors. It was also recommended that secret agents not only be rewarded for the job done by them but, also, in the event of repeated mistakes, silent punishment-death-be awarded to them.
Communication of Intelligence: Intelligence not properly and promptly conveyed, cannot be acted upon thereby loses its value and validity.
Interception of Mail: Interception of messages, signals and letters by postal censorship, monitoring, tapping telephones, and breaking codes is the standard practice of modern intelligence agencies. In the ancient period, since intelligence was communicated through pre-determined signals and with the assistance of pigeons, secret agents must have made elaborate arrangements to intercept these messages.
Assessment of Information: Caution against the placing of reliance on agents without proper validation has always been the ethical mode of information. The Arthasastra emphasized that all aspects of a report must be gone through, including the source of information, the mode of its collection and the past performance of a source before it is accepted. Briefing and debriefing of secret agents was an elaborate exercise, and they were trained to be precise, accurate and truthful in reporting.
Working Under ‘Cover’: The institution of espionage in ancient India, like modern times, required secret agents to work under some kind of ‘cover’ to preserve secrecy.
Chânakya institutionalized the art of working under the most imaginative ‘covers’. The most common disguises recommended by him were those of frugal, beggar, merchant, artisan, wandering minstrel, artiste, cook, barber and shampooer, bath and toilet attendant, deaf, dumb, eunuch and prostitute. Chânakya recommends the use of women as effective tools of espionage particularly those who were engaged in prostitutism.
Counter Intelligence: A counter-intelligence operation is directed at discovering the identities and methods of foreign spies and intelligence officers working for the opposition. One of the most important duties of the Secret Service in ancient India was to counteract the activities of such agents operating within the country. Chânakya recommends that secret agents should discover foreign spies by operating at the places of entertainment, conclaves of people, among beggars, in gardens and public places, and the houses of prominent citizens.
Disinformation and Dissension: Manipulation of public opinion is as important an object of the State today as it was in ancient India. It is used to create disharmony and distrust among the enemy’s friends, ill-will among his allies, loss of confidence in their leadership and disruption by psychological means his capacity and will to fight. Chânakya had perfected the technique of disinformation and highly praised the use of conflict in enemy’s ranks for winning a battle without any military action.
Sabotage: The technique of sabotage, which the political strategists consider as the second to last means to crush an enemy, had been greatly perfected in ancient India. Secret practices for sabotage were advocated by Chânakya to ensure victor. He suggests the creation of an atmosphere nice to arousing terror, fear, demoralization, disappointment and loss of confidence among the enemy ranks.
Prior to launching a full-scale assault on the enemy fort, Chânakya suggests implementation of secret measures to weaken its defenses not only physically but in all respects. These include prevention of sowing the fields, destruction of the standing crops and cutting of the enemy’s supply lines.
He also advises free and uninhibited use of poison in the articles used by the enemy. His detailed and scientifically valid knowledge of the subject has earned for him a place in Arabic medical literature, which knows him as Ibn Shanaq (son of Chanak). Some of the secret stratagems advocated by Chânakya include the use of smoke with properties seriously affecting the vision, and, arson or setting fires within the enemy fort.
The employment of Poison-damsels: Visakanya is a unique feature of the Indian genius to poison the monarch. These venomous beauties are:
- A damsel ,whose body is saturated with gradual doses of poison, and who is likely to transmit poison from her body to another person coming in contact with her.
- A woman, who treacherously captivates the heart of a person and then mixes poison in his “food or drinks”,.
- A girl, who is, one way or the other, so much poisoned or infected with disease that she is likely to convey her poison or disease to the person coming in contact with her.
- A woman suffering from Venereal disease or, in the latest situation one suffering from Aids is a Visa kanya of this kind.
- Secret Agencies in ancient India had perfected very ingenious techniques to sub serve the interests of their crowned heads.
- Besides using the promising technological advancement available to them, they exploited human weakness for sex to achieve royal objectives.
- ‘In the work of espionage, all methods are admissible Ñ snooping, lying, bribing, poisoning, using women’s charm and the assassin’s knife.
To a weak king menaced by strong neighbors, Chânakya advice was to rely chiefly on spies and remuneration what he described as a ‘battle of intrigues’(mauvering) (mantra yuddha) and ‘secret wars’ (kuta yuddha). The spies, in order to achieve their objective, were to practice all kinds of fraud, tricks, arsons and robbery. Their objective was to demoralize the enemy’s troops by circulating false news, and seduce the allegiance of his minister and commanders.
The underlying idea seems to have been to keep the strong neighbors preoccupied with domestic troubles thus making it impossible for him to launch a foreign expedition.
Transformation of predecessors in to successors:
- The rules of business of espionage have not changed; at least the basic principles remain as before, from the days of Chânakya.
- It was towards the end of 1966 and the beginning of 1967 that the concept of a separate foreign intelligence agency began to take concrete shape.
- In 1968, after Indira Gandhi had taken over, it was decided that a full-fledged second security service was needed.
- R. N. Kao, then a deputy director of IB, submitted a blueprint for the new agency.
- He was appointed as the chief of India’s first foreign intelligence agency named as ‘the Research and Analysis Wing’ or RAW’.
Shaping the organization: Starting humbly as a Wing of the main Intelligence Bureau with 250 personnel and an annual budget of Rs 2 crore (estimated), in the early seventies, its annual budget had risen to Rs 30 crore while its personnel numbered several thousand.
- In 1971, Kao had persuaded the government to set up the Aviation Research Centre (ARC) for aerial reconnaissance.
- By the mid-70s, RAW, through the ARC, had high quality aerial pictures of the installations along targeted borders countries.
- In 1976, Kao was promoted to the rank of a full-fledged Secretary responsible for Security directly reporting to the Prime Minister.
- With this rise of appointment RAW became India’s premier intelligence agency.
Reference: abstract from, Raw at War-Genesis of Secret Agencies in Ancient India Columnist Gp. Capt SM HALI ,the historical capacity of Research & Analysis Wing (RAW) of India to conduct clandestine operations/(Sisupala – vadha, 2.112)
“R…………A …………..W” Research &Analysis Wing”
Country: India, Area of expertise: Destabilizing Pakistan
Activities: Founded in, 1968, specifically, to counter Pakistan.
- Over the years it has grown into one of the world’s most formidable intelligence services, with wide-ranging activities in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh, and elsewhere.
- It is particularly active in Bangladesh and Pakistan, where it played a key role in that country’s movement for independence from Pakistan.
Research and Analysis Wing [RAW]: The Cabinet Secretariat Research and Analysis Wing [RAW], India’s most powerful intelligence agency, and is India’s external intelligence agency. RAW has become an effective instrument of India’s national power, and has assumed a significant role in formulating India’s domestic and foreign policies. Since its creation, R.A.W. has been a vital, though unobtrusive, actor in the Indian policy-making apparatus.
Engagements: RAW has engaged in disinformation campaigns, espionage and sabotage against Pakistan and other neighboring countries. Federation of American Scientists website comments on RAW in these words, “RAW has engaged in disinformation campaigns, espionage and sabotage against Pakistan and other neighboring countries.
RAW has enjoyed the backing of successive Indian governments in these efforts. Working directly under the Prime Minister, the structure, rank, pay and perks of the Research & Analysis Wing are kept secret from Parliament.”
Organization & Reporting: RAW has enjoyed the backing of successive Indian governments in these efforts. R.A.W.’s boss works directly under the prime minister. It is worth mentioning here that in other democratic countries, the external intelligence services have to report to parliamentary committees that scrutinized their activities, evaluate their performance and audit their accounts. There are no such checks for RAW.
- An Additional secretary to the government of India is responsible for the Office of Special Operations.
- The additional secretary as well as the director general of security is also under the director of R.A.W.
- The director of security has two important sections:
- The Aviation, Research Center, and
- The Special Services, Bureau.
- The joint director has specified desks with different regional divisions/areas (countries)
- Area one, Pakistan
- Area two, China and Southeast Asia
- Area three, the Middle East and Africa
- And area four, other countries
- The Aviation Research Center (A.R.C.) is responsible for interception, monitoring and jamming of a target country’s communication systems.
- It has the most sophisticated electronic equipment and also a substantial number of aircraft equipped with state-of-the-art eavesdropping devices.
- These aircraft can reportedly fly at an altitude of 52,000 feet and have an operating range of 5,000 kilometers.
- A.R.C. also controls a number of radar stations located close to India’s borders.
- Its aircraft also carry out oblique reconnaissance, along the border with Bangladesh, China, Nepal, and Pakistan.
Structure of organization: The structure of the RAW is a matter of speculation, but brief overviews of the same are present in the public domain. Attached to the HQ of RAW at New Delhi are different regional headquarters, which have direct links to overseas stations and are headed by a controlling officer who keeps records of different projects assigned to field officers who are posted abroad.
Intelligence is usually collected from a variety of sources by field officers and deputy field officers; it is either pre-processed (vetted) by a senior field officer or by a desk officer. The desk officer then passes the information to the Joint Secretary and then on to the Additional Secretary and from there it is disseminated to the concerned end user. The Director RAW is a member of the JIC Steering Committee and is authorized to brief the Prime Minister should the need arise.
List of Indian Intelligence agencies, sister concerned: India has a number of intelligence agencies of which the best known are the Research and Analysis Wing, India’s external intelligence agency and the Intelligence Bureau, the internal intelligence agency.
- Research and Analysis Wing
- Intelligence Bureau
- Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA)
- Joint Cipher Bureau
- All India Radio Monitoring Service
- Joint, Intelligence Committee
- Signals Intelligence Directorate
- Aviation Research Centre
- Directorate of Air Intelligence
- Directorate of Navy Intelligence
Research and Analysis Wing (R.A.W): The Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW) of the Cabinet secretariat was formed on September 21, 1968 and handles India’s external covert intelligence gathering. Although its budget is unknown, some estimates peg it at $160 million. It is believed to have about 10,000 agents in its payroll. The Chief of R&AW is designated as Secretary (R). The first to hold this post was R. N. Kao of the IB.
- Intelligence Bureau: The IB was established in 1947 to assume responsibility for India’s domestic security. The IB is shrouded in secrecy and there is little public information concerning its main operations.
- Defense Intelligence Agency: This agency was established on 5 March 2002 with the appointment of Lt. General Kamal Davar as the first Director General (DG). It is supposed to be the nodal agency for all defense related intelligence.
- Joint Cipher Bureau: The Joint Cipher Bureau works closely with the IB and RAW. It is responsible for cryptanalysis and encryption of sensitive data.
- All India Radio Monitoring Service: The Central Monitoring Service of All India Radio monitors all radio broadcasts in India as well as all foreign radio broadcasts which can be received in India.
- Joint Intelligence Committee: The JIC is entrusted with the tasks of coordinating intelligence between all government agencies, civilian and military. It consists of experts on several issues who analyze intelligence inputs.
- Signals Intelligence Directorate: The Signals Intelligence Directorate is a joint service organization, manned by personnel from the Army, Navy and Air Force. t has a large number of WEUs (Wireless Experimental Units) that carry out the task of monitoring military links of other countries.
- Aviation Research Centre: The ARC is the (signals intelligence) arm of the RAW. It has stations in Palam Airport in Delhi and at the Farkhor Air Base at Farkhor/Ayni in Tajikistan. It reports to the Director General of Security and RAW.
- Directorate of Air Intelligence: Directorate of Air Intelligence (India). The DAI is responsible for air and satellite reconnaissance missions.
- Directorate of Naval Intelligence (India): This is the Indian Navy’s intelligence arm.
References: Military Intelligence in India: An Analysis Bhashyam Kasturi: The Indian Defence Review, 1997 Cryptography Technology and Policy Directions in the Context of NII Gulshan Rai, R.K.Dubash, and A.K.Chakravarti. Information Technology Group Dept. of Electronics Govt. of India December , 1997 etrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Indian_Intelligence_agencies”Categories: Indian intelligence agencies
Mission & Objectives: “What is not possible by deployment of force is possible by the use of stratagem. The black cobra was defeated by the stratagem of the crow and the golden chain”. (Chânakya)
In 1968 India established this special branch of its intelligence service specifically targeted on Pakistan. India’s intelligence agency Research and Analysis Wing (R.A.W.), has assumed a significant status in the formulation of the country’s domestic and foreign policies, particularly the latter. Its internal role is confined only to monitoring events that have a bearing on the external threat.
Working directly under the prime minister, it has over the years become an effective instrument of India’s national power. Having been given virtual carte blanche to conduct destabilization operations in neighboring countries inimical to India, R.A.W. seriously undertook restructuring of its organization accordingly.
The Daily Mail findings reveal that the RAW, established in 1968, was given the special assignments to launch a multi-dimensional secret war against Pakistan. The formation of RAW was created with the specific purpose that Pakistan should not be given enough room to strengthen itself and incapacitate it to broaden its relations with different influential countries by creating occasional internal unrest and anarchy.
The experts believe that the Indian agencies cause this act of terrorism, as an attempt to achieve a number of goals, including halting of Pakistan’s foreign collaborated Defence projects, blocking the flow of foreign investment etc.
The other aim behind its formation was to destabilize Pakistan’s economy and cripple its nuclear program. Numerous missions were assigned to RAW upon its creation. These included monitoring political and military developments in neighboring countries that affects Indian national security.
Consequently, considerable attention is paid by RAW to Pakistan and China, countries that are traditional rivals of India.
R.A.W. was given a list of seven countries-Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Pakistan, and Maldives-that India considered its principal regional protagonists.
- It very soon systematically and brilliantly crafted covert operations in all these countries to coerce, destabilize, and subvert them in consonance with the foreign policy objectives of the Indian government.
- Central to the operations was the establishment of a huge network inside the target countries.
- It used and targeted political dissent, ethnic divisions, economic backwardness, and criminal elements within these states to foment subversion, terrorism, and sabotage.
- Having thus created conducive environments, R.A.W. stage-managed future events in these countries in such a way that military intervention appears a natural concomitant of the events.
Doctrine and perception: In consonance with (Kautilya’s) precepts, R.A.W.’s espionage doctrine is based on the principle of waging a continuous series of battles of intrigues and secret wars. (Kautilya’s, or more popularly, (Chânakya) was an ancient Indian political theorist.)
But it is the massive international dimensions of R.A.W. operations that merit a closer examination. To the credit of this organization, it has in a very short span of time mastered the art of spy warfare. To suit her much publicized Indira Doctrine (India Doctrine), Gandhi specifically asked R.A.W to create a powerful organ within the organization that could undertake covert operations in neighboring countries. It is this capability that makes R.A.W. a more fearsome agency than the superior K.G.B., C.I.A., M.I.6, B.N.D., or Mossad.
Skill: R.A.W.’s operations against the regional countries were conducted with great professional skill and expertise. In most cases, R.A.W.’s hand remained hidden, but more often than not target countries soon began unearthing this “hidden hand.”
Reference: A brief expose of R.A.W.’s operations in neighboring countries, “Open Secrets: India’s Intelligence Unveiled ” by M. K. Dhar (Manas Publications, New Delhi, 2005), revealed the full expanse of its regional ambitions to suit the India Doctrine.
RAW in Pakistan: RAW has an extensive network of agents and anti-government elements within Pakistan, including dissident elements.
- Pakistan’s size, strength, and potential have always overawed India.
- It has always considered Pakistan to be the main opponent to its expansionist doctrine.
- India’s animosity toward Pakistan is psychologically and ideologically deep-rooted and unassailable.
- India’s 1965 and 1971 wars with Pakistan over Kashmir, which resulted in the dismemberment of Pakistan and the creation of Bangladesh, is just two examples.
- Pakistan remains RAW’s primary concern.
- It runs thousands of agents and spends millions of rupees in its operations against Pakistan.
It has made a three-pronged attack against Pakistan in an attempt to destabilize it:
- Espionage, and
RAW is totally committed on all these three fronts and is engaged in launching covert operations in consonance with India’s hostile foreign policy. All aspects of Pakistani activities, economic, military, industrial and cultural receive a close scrutiny of RAW.
- The ‘Indian Doctrine’ spelt out a difficult and onerous role of RAW.
- It goes to its credit that it has accomplished or at least continued in a motivated manner its assigned objectives.
- The Indian government spelling out the task for RAW in this regard has stated,
- ‘Pakistan should be so destabilized internally that it could not support the ‘Kashmir cause even morally, diplomatically or politically’.
RAW in Provinces:
- R.A.W. considers Sindh and Balochistan province and now FATA as well to be Pakistan’s soft underbelly.
- It has made it the prime target for sabotage and subversion.
- R.A.W. has enrolled an extensive network of agents and antigovernment elements and is convinced that with a little push restless things will revolt.
- Taking full advantage of the agitation in Sindh in 1983, and the periodic ethnic riots, which have continued to today, R.A.W. has deeply penetrated Sindh and cultivated dissidents and secessionists, thereby creating hard-liners unlikely to allow peace to return to Sindh.
- R.A.W. is also similarly involved in Balochistan.
- R.A.W. has successfully accomplished its target for confusing the ground situation in Kashmir so as to keep the world’s attention away from the gross human rights violations in Indian-occupied Kashmir.
- RAW and ISI Phobia
- Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence agency (I.S.I.), being almost 20 years older than R.A.W. and having acquired a much higher standard of efficiency in its functioning, has become the prime target of R.A.W.’s designs.
- The I.S.I. is considered to be a stumbling block in R.A.W.’s operations and has been made a target of massive misinformation and propaganda campaigns.
- The tirade against I.S.I. continues unabated.
- The idea is to keep I.S.I. on the defensive by alleging in multi factorial issues whatsoever.
- R.A.W.’s fixation on I.S.I. has taken the shape of I.S.I.-phobia, as in India every one traces the origin of all happenings and shortcomings to the I.S.I.
- Whenever and wherever there is a kidnapping, a bank robbery, a financial scandal, a bomb blast, or what have you, the I.S.I. is deemed to have.
Ashok A Biswas, a Delhi-based research scholar, in his recently compiled study RAW – An Unobstructive Instrument of India’s Foreign Policy, (as quoted by Pakistan Observer in ‘A RAW deal for South Asia, 03 May, 1998) states that ‘the aim of RAW is to keep internal disturbances flaring up and the ISI preoccupied so that Pakistan can lend no worthwhile resistance to Indian designs in the region.’ He concludes, ‘RAW over the years has admirably fulfilled its task of destabilizing target states through unbridled export for terrorism had a hand in it.
Reference: (See “R.A.W.: Global and Regional Ambitions” edited by Rashid Ahmad Khan and Muhammad Saleem, Islamabad Policy Research Institute, Asia Printers, Islamabad, 2005).
Infiltration: Data reveals by published reports allegedly that as many as 35,000 RAW agents entered Pakistan between 1983-93, with 12,000 are working in Sindh, 10000 in Punjab 8000 in North West Frontier Province and 5000 in Balochistan.
- Training Camps: As many as 40 terrorist training camps at Rajasthan, East Punjab, Held Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh and other parts of India are run by the RAW’s Special Service Bureau (SSB).
- Belief: The formation of RAW was based on the self assumed belief that Pakistan was supplying weapons to Sikh terrorists, and providing shelter and training to the guerrillas in Pakistan.
Pakistan has accused the Research and Analysis Wing of sponsoring sabotage in Punjab, where RAW is alleged to have supported the Siraiki movement, providing financial support to promote its activities in Pakistan and organizing an International Siraiki Conference in Delhi in November-December 1993.
The objectives of RAW include:
- The objectives of RAW is to monitor the political and military developments in all the adjoining countries, which have, direct bearing on India’s national security and in the formulation of its foreign policy.
- To, seek the control and limitation of the supply of military hardware to Pakistan, mostly from European countries, the USA and China.
- And last but not the least, the presence of a large ethnic Indian population in foreign countries, provide a powerful lobbying. These countries could back a favorable policy in international councils, motivated by the ethnic Indian group.
- Aggressive Intelligence:
- The primary mission of RAW includes aggressive intelligence which comprise espionage, psychological warfare, subversion, sabotage, terrorism and creating dissension, insurgency and, ultimately, insurrection to destabilize the target country.
- Modus Operandi
- RAW operatives find good covers in Multinational organizations.
- NGOs and Cultural programmes are also popular screens to shield RAW activities.
- International media centres can easily absorb RAW operatives and provide freedom of movement.
- Collaboration with other agencies:
- RAW maintains active collaboration with other secret services to meet its ends in a particular target country.
- Its contacts with KGB of the former Soviet Union, KHAD, and the erstwhile Afghan agency, Mossad, CIA and MI6 have been well-known.
- A common interest being, the Pakistan’s Nuclear Programme.
- Third Country Technique
- RAW has been very active in obtaining information and operating through third countries like the Middle East, Afghanistan, UK, Hong Kong, Mayan mar and Singapore.
- Spotting and Recruitment:
- RAW operatives are on the lookout for local recruits to serve their ends.
- Acting on the Chanakyan principles, they tend to exploit human weaknesses for wine, women and wealth, and, at times resort to blackmail.
- Separatist tendencies and ethnic or sectarian sensitivities are also well-known grounds for manipulation.
- Armed Forces personnel remain a primary target.
- Journalists, intellectuals and politicians harboring and preaching goodwill and better Indo-Pak relations also make suitable targets for inadvertent and unconscious recruitment by RAW agents.
- Raw in and Afghan War
- Throughout the Afghan War RAW was responsible for the planning and execution of terrorist activities in Pakistan to deter Pakistan from support of Afghan liberation movement against India’s ally, the Soviet Union.
The assistance provided to RAW by the KGB enabled RAW to arrange terrorist attacks in Pakistani cities throughout the Afghan War.
Country:Russia, Area of expertise:
Officially-counterterrorism, and protecting, Russian, commercial interests abroad.
Unofficially-consolidating, political power back home.
- Russia has a formidable spying tradition that dates back to the czarist-era Cheeka.
- After the collapse of the Soviet Union, KGB was broken up into several smaller organizations with vastly limited powers.
- Since ex-KGB man Vladimir Putin took power, however, the SVR, or Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedk as it’s known in Russian, has recovered much of its swagger.
- Russian spying within the United States is now back to Cold War levels, U.S. officials believe.
Peter Earnest, the executive director of the International Spy Museum in Washington, who matched wits with the KGB as a CIA operative for over three decades, shared this assessment.
“They are as important today as they ever were, if not more,” he said. “Russia has not eased off at all on its espionage activity.
President Putin in May 2000 amended the presidential announcement on nuclear exports to allow Russia to export nuclear materials, technology and equipment to countries that do not have full-scope IAEA safeguards, and it supplied India, that do not have full-scale safeguards, with material for its civilian (nuclear) Programme in 2001,” it says.
Russia ,also continues to be the main supplier of technology and equipment to India’ sties.”
In addition, Russia has discussed leasing nuclear-powered attack submarines to India, the CIA says.
Russian entities, it says, during 2001 supplied a variety of ballistic missile-related goods and technical know-how to countries such as India
Besides, Russia was the primary source of advanced conventional weapons for India in 2001..
Despite progress in creating a legal and bureaucratic framework for Russia’s export controls, lax enforcement and insufficient penalties for violations “remain a serious concern” to the United States, the CIA Washington, January 9: Russia has significantly supported in developing India’s nuclear programmes with technology and equipment, and become a main source of arms for the country, the CIA has said.
The defeat of the Soviet Union in Afghanistan did not end the role of RAW in Pakistan, with reports suggesting that India has established a training camp in the town of Qadian, in East Punjab, where non-Muslim Pakistanis are trained for terrorist activities.
Since December 1979, throughout the Afghan War, the K.G.B., K.H.A.D. (W.A.D.) (a former Afghan intelligence outfit), and R.A.W. stepped up their efforts to concentrate on influencing and covertly exploiting the tribes on both sides of the Pakistan-Afghanistan border.
There was intimate coordination between the three intelligence agencies not only in Afghanistan but also in Pakistan, where destabilization was sought through a subversion and sabotage plan related to Afghan refugees and mujahideen in the tribal belt and inside Pakistan.
The joint coalition organized, spotted and recruited the hostile tribesmen and trained them in guerrilla warfare, infiltration, subversion, sabotage, and the establishment of saboteur forces/terrorist organizations in the pro-Afghan border tribes of Pakistan in order to carry out bombings and unrest in the Northwest Frontier province (NWFP) , Balochistan, Punjab and sindh provinces to threaten and create pressure to accomplished the mission.
They also carried out bomb blasts in populated areas deep inside Pakistan to create panic and hatred in the minds of locals against Afghan refugee mujahideen to pressure Pakistan to change its policies on Afghanistan.
Research and Analysis Wing also conducted execution of sectarian violence between Shias and Sunnis which has resulted in thousands of deaths during these years.
RAW and terrorist activities: Apart from launching the propaganda, the economy and psychological warfare the RAW has been indulging in a series of terrorist activities in Pakistan. Many of the major terrorist attacks, carried out in Pakistan by RAW have been acknowledged by independent international observers such as Foundation of American Society (FAS), owing to the overwhelming evidences left by the agency behind.
The Government of Pakistan frequently assigns responsibility for terrorist activity to the Indian Government, even when no evidence can be verified. Terrorist activities in Pakistan attributed to the clandestine activities of Indian and Afghan intelligence agencies that have credibly been vested are and include,
- A car bomb explosion, in Saddar Area, Peshawar, on 21 December, 1995, causing death of 37, innocent people and injuring over 50 others.
- An explosion at, Shaukat Khanum Cancer Hospital, Lahore, on 14 April 1996, claiming the lives of 7 persons and injuring some 34 others.
- A bomb blast near Bhaipheru in a passenger bus, traveling from Lahore to Sahiwal on 28 April 1996, killing 44 people on the spot and wounding another 30.
- A bomb explosion in a bus near Sheikhupura on 8 May, 1996, killing 7 people and injuring 29.
- A bomb explosion near Alam Chowk, Gujranwala, causing a significant number of casualties on June 10, 1996.
- A bomb explosion in a passenger bus near Kharian on 10 June, 1996.
- A bomb explosion outside Madrassah Faiz-ul-Islam Rawalpindi on 10 June, 1996.
- A bomb blast at Faisalabad railway station on 8 July, 1996.
- A bomb blast in Rawalpindi.
- A bomb blast in Lahore.
- A bomb blast at Sabzi Mandi of Islamabad on 19 September, 2000, killing 20 people and injuring nearly 80 others etc.
- Apart from these blasts the RAW has carried out a number of other subversive activities including sniper’ firing and grenade attacks on Mosques, Imam Bargahs, and other religious places, printing and distribution of inflammatory religious literature.
- Punjab has remained the main target of RAW activities during the past few years where 224 bombs were exploded by RAW agents during the past 13 years or so resulting in the killing of 554 innocent citizens and injuring 2958 others.
- During the year 2000 there have been 18 bomb attacks in Punjab, eight in Punjab alone killing 13 persons.
- In May, 1999 the US State department, in its annual report on terrorism, spared three lengthy paragraphs for Pakistan (as a victim of terrorism and sectarian strife).
- It is learnt that the US authorities strongly believe that RAW and some other Indian intelligence agencies have been the only source of terrorism in Pakistan.
- It is learnt that experts are of the firm view that RAW, India’s external intelligence agency, is not the only secret agency of India, assigned the duties to carry out subversive activities in Pakistan but in fact several other Indian agencies have also been given similar assignments.
- According to The Daily Mail findings, a Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) at Delhi assigned terrorist and sabotage duties to the Intelligence Bureau, RAW, Military Intelligence, Naval Intelligence, Air Intelligence, Special Frontier Force, Joint Cipher Bureau etc. All these agencies have been actively executing plans of terrorism formulated by the succeeding governments in many countries of the region, particularly Pakistan.
RAW allegedly executed a hijacking of an Indian Airliner to Lahore in 1971 which was attributed to the Kashmiris, to give a terrorist dimension to the Kashmiri national movement. However soon the extent of RAW’s involvement was made public.
RAW during Partition and Thereafter
- RAW has a long history of activity in Bangladesh, supporting both secular forces and the area’s Hindu minority.
- The involvement of RAW in East Pakistan is said to date from the 1960s, when RAW promoted dissatisfaction against Pakistan in East Pakistan, including funding Mujibur Rahmanh’s general election in 1970 and providing training and arming the Mukti Bahini.
- Indian intelligence agencies, were involved in East Pakistan now, Bangladesh, beginning, in the early 1960′s.
- Its operatives were in touch with Sheikh Mujib for quite some time. Sheikh Mujib went to Agartala in 1965.
- The famous Agartala case was unearthed in 1967.
- In fact, the main purpose of raising R.A.W. in 1968 was to organize covert operations in Bangladesh.
- As early as 1968, R.A.W. was given a green light to begin mobilizing all its resources for the impending surgical intervention in erstwhile East Pakistan.
- When in July 1971 General Manekshaw told Prime Minister Indira Gandhi that the army would not be ready until December to intervene in Bangladesh, she quickly turned to R.A.W. for help.
- R.A.W. was ready. Its officers used Bengali refugees to set up the guerilla force Mukti Bahini. Using, this outfit as a cover, the Indian military sneaked deep into Bangladesh.
- The story of Mukti Bahini and R.A.W.’s role in its creation and training is now well known.
- R.A.W. never concealed its Bangladesh operations.
- The creation of Bangladesh was masterminded by R.A.W. in complicity with the K.G.B under the covert clauses of the Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation (adopted as the 25-Year Indo-Bangladesh Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation in 1972).
Reference :( See Asoka Raina’s “Inside R.A.W.: the story of India’s Secret Service, Vikas Publishing House of New Delhi.)
R.A.W. retained a keen interest in Bangladesh even after its independence.
- R.A.W. was involved in training of Chakma tribes and Shanti Bahini, who carried out subversive activities in Bangladesh.
- It also unleashed a well-organized plan of psychological warfare, created polarization among the armed forces, propagated false allegations of the use of Bangladesh territory by Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence agency, created dissension among the political parties and religious sects, controlled the media, denied the use of river waters, and propped up a host of disputes in order to keep Bangladesh under constant political and socio-economic pressure.
Reference: (See “R.A.W. and Bangladesh” by Mohammad Zainal Abedin, November 1995, and “R.A.W. in Bangladesh: Portrait of an Aggressive Intelligence,” written and published by Abu Rushd, Dhaka).
- Foreign Missions provide an ideal cover and RAW centres in a target country are generally located inside the Embassy premises.
- The RAW and the Ministry of External Affairs are provided Rs 25 crore annually as “discretionary grants” for foreign influence operations.
- An extensive network of Indian operatives is controlled by the Indian Embassy in Washington DC.
- The Indian embassy’s covert activities are reported to include the infiltration of US long distance telephone carriers by Indian operatives, with access to all kinds of information, to reverse blackmail of relatives of US residents living in India.
- In 1996 an Indian diplomat was implicated in a scandal over illegal funding of political candidates in the US.
- Under US law foreign nationals are prohibited from contributing to federal elections.
- The US District Court in Baltimore sentenced Lalit H Gadhia, a naturalised US citizen of Indian origin, to three months imprisonment.
- Gadhia had confessed that he worked as a conduit between the Indian Embassy and various Indian-American organizations for funneling campaign contributions to influence US lawmakers.
- Over $46,000 from the Indian Embassy was distributed among 20 Congressional candidates. The source of the cash used by Gadhia was Devendra Singh, a RAW official assigned to the Indian Embassy in Washington.
- Illicit campaign money received in 1995 went to Democratic candidates including Sens. Charles S. Robb (D-Va.), Paul S. Sarbanes (D -Md.) and Reps. Benjamin L. Cardin (D-Md.) and Steny H. Hoyer (D-Md.).
Raw-Mossad-Connection: Janes information group, the world’s foremost source on intelligence information, reported in July 2001 that the Indian spy agency RAW and the Israeli spy agency Mossad have created” four new agencies to infiltrate Pakistan to target important religious and military personalities, journalists, judges, lawyers and bureaucrats.
In addition, bombs would be exploded in trains, railway stations, bridges, bus stations, cinemas, hotels and mosques of rival Islamic sects to incite sectarianism. Pakistani intelligence agencies also said that RAW had constituted a plan to lure Pakistani men between 20 and 30 years of age to visit India so they could be entrapped in cases of fake currency and subversion’ and then be coerced to spy for India.
This was high point of cementing an unholy alliance which began much earlier and which continues to tighten its noose around the neck of Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan and Central Asia.
It appears that RAW and Mossad-either singly or jointly, either covertly or overtly-have been making efforts to penetrate sensitive circles of top echelon in Pakistan.
What is clear right now in RAW-Mossad connection is that Indian RAW and Israeli Mossad are collaborating extensively to curb the freedom movement of Kashmir and destabilize Pakistan.
- Pakistani intelligence agencies also said that RAW had constituted a plan to lure Pakistani men between 20 and 30 years of age to visit India so that they could be entrapped
- “In cases of fake currency and subversion and then be coerced to spy for India.”
- It appears that RAW and Mossad – either singly or jointly, either covertly or overtly – have been making efforts to penetrate sensitive circles of top echelon in Pakistan.
- Qutbuddin Aziz, former minister in Pakistan embassy in London, wrote an excellent article, titled ‘Dangerous Nexus between Israel & India.‘ It was published by a prominent Pakistani newspaper on April 1, 2001.
- “Top secret details of Indian Home Minister LK Advani’s visit to Israel in June 2000, show that the deals he has struck with the Israelis would make India and Israel partners in threatening the Muslim world with diabolic conspiracies to fragment and cripple it as a political force in the world. The details of his meetings with Israel’s rulers, particularly the heads of the Israeli Home Ministry and its intelligence agencies, Mossad and Sabak, reveal that the arrangements he has made for joint Indo-Israel espionage operations in key areas of the Muslim world would make the Indian embassies in these Muslim countries the eyes and ears of the worldwide cloak-and-dagger Israeli spy network.
- “Under the euphemism of ‘counter-terrorism,’ India is allowing Israel to establish a huge spy establishment in India which will, inter alia, unearth and monitor ‘Islamic fundamentalist’ individuals and groups for elimination by extra judicial process or by cold-blooded murder and kidnapping.
- “The Indian side showed a keen interest in learning from Israeli security experts how they had run the slice of Lebanon which Israel ruled for 18 years and gave up recently.
- Some information about the Israeli torture and investigation methods was gathered by the Indian side from the Israelis with regard to dealing with Arab dissidents within Israel and in the Palestinian Authority region.
- “The Indians gave the Israelis a long shopping list of spying, torture and surveillance equipment such as electronic fencing of sensitive sites, laser systems, short-range rockets, eagle-eyed long distance snipers, observation blimps, giant shields, night vision device, unmanned aircraft of the MALAT wing of the Israeli Aircraft Industries Limited, special protective dress and gear for security personnel, cross border snooping devices and gadgets, training and deployment of spies and the special gear for them, use of computers and Internet for espionage and disinformation, code-breaking, tailing of enemy agents and their elimination, nuclear espionage, purloining state secrets of hostile countries and pooling them for the good of India and Israel and their mutual friends.
- “The Israelis were interested in having access to the secret reports of Indian undercover RAW diplomats from certain Muslim countries of special interest to Israel (especially Pakistan, Libya and Iran). India is apparently willing to grant access to Israeli agents to the Indian Home Ministry’s Central Intelligence Processing Unit (CIPU) in New Delhi. This was set up under Advani’s direction with Israeli and US help. A handpicked RAW officer, trusted by Advani’s, heads this unit. Israel wants full access to its information data. The Indian government has already allowed access to it by American intelligence agencies now working with the Indian government on so-called anti-terrorist assignments.
- Tarek Fatah, a Pakistani scholar settled in Canada, wrote: “Britain’s authoritative and respected defense publication, Jane’s Terrorism & Security Monitor, reports that Israel and India have formed a military relationship and that Israeli intelligence is active in Occupied Kashmir.
- “Israel has several teams now in Kashmir training Indian counter-insurgency forces to fight the dozen separatist guerrilla groups operating in the Indian-controlled sector of the disputed state.
Ed Blanche writes in Janes’ Security on 14 August 2001:
“Israeli intelligence agencies have been intensifying their relations with India’s security apparatus and are now understood to be heavily involved in helping New Delhi combat Islamic militants in the disputed province of Kashmir, India’s only Muslim-majority state which lies at the core of the conflict with neighboring Pakistan. “
It has several teams now in Kashmir training Indian counter-insurgency forces to fight the dozen separatist guerrilla groups operating in the Indian-controlled sector of the disputed state.
“The exact extent of the involvement in Kashmir by Israel s intelligence agencies is far from clear, but it fits into Israel’s increasing focus on events in Central Asia, and as far field as Indonesia, the world’s most populous Muslim state, to counteract Islamic fundamentalism, which it perceives as a major threat.
We have been reading the name MOSSAD.
Mossad and its role in destroying Muslims around the world and especially in South East Asia with the help of India RAW wraps, in a fascinating plot, full of intrigue and betrayal.
It is said that it is the joint venture of the trigone that is the core point of consideration.
Mossad, RAW and Israeli Russian Ukrainian drug mafia have been performing these functions as coalition partner previously.
Area of expertise: Combating Islamist terrorism, evacuating Jewish refugees.
Activities: “We’re all students of the Mossad,” says Earnest.
Since it was founded in 1951, “the Institute,” as it translates in English, has acquired a reputation for extraordinary skill and aggressiveness in combating Israel’s enemies.
Some of its notable achievements include the abduction of Nazi leader Adolf Eichmann from Argentina in 1960, the assassination of the planners of the 1972 Munich Olympics killings, and the assassination of a senior Hamas operative with an exploding cell phone in 1996.
The Mossad has also been active over the years in efforts to assist Jewish refugees who seek to immigrate to Israel, including the secret airlifting of thousands of Ethiopian Jews in “Operation Moses” in 1984.
The Mossad made some moves toward greater transparency and openness in the 1990s, including revealing the name of its director for the first time, but under Ariel Sharon it turned back toward the clandestine operations for which it is best known.
Reports indicate that the Mossad may have had either an agent or an informant at the Syrian military installation that Israel bombed in September 2007.
Mossad is the nickname of,
‘The Institute for Intelligence and Special Tasks’
(Ha-Mossad le- Modiin ule-Tafkidim Meyuhadim)
It is a compact body of about 1500 regular employees; Mossad relies on Jews and sympathizers worldwide forits operations. During years it has begun paying special attention to Pakistan, Iran and Central Asia.
Hi-Tech Mossad Dan Yahkin, a Jewish analyst, wrote an article which was published on 19 April 2001 in Globes, a Tel Aviv publication.
He narrates the story of ‘Gil’ and ‘Or’, pseudonym of two former operatives of Mossad.
The contention behind his narrative is that Mossad is as hi tech as any outfit in the world, military or otherwise.
“Political Action and Liaison Department conducts political activities and liaison with friendly foreign intelligence services and with nations with which Israel does not have normal diplomatic relations.
In larger stations, such as Paris, Mossad customarily had under embassy cover two regional controllers
One to serve collection department and the other the Political Action and Liaison Department.
“Special Operations Division, also known as Metsada, conducts highly sensitive assassinations, sabotage, paramilitary, and psychological warfareprojects.
“LAP (Lohamah Psichlogit) Department is responsible for psychological warfare, propaganda and deception operations.
Research Department is responsible for intelligence production, including daily situation reports, weekly summaries and detailed monthly reports.
The Department is organized into 15 geographically specialized sections or “desks”, including the USA, Canada and Western Europe, Latin America, Former Soviet Union, China, Africa, the Maghreb Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Iran.
A “nuclear” desk is focused on special weapons related issues.
Recently the makings of a plot for a 7/7 style terrorist attack by Israeli Mossad terrorists against Montreal’s Metro was exposed. Posted by anarchore on March 29, 2008,with the headingMontreal 911 Truth Movement Averts Mossad Metro Terror Plot.
Pro-Israel Zionists placed by treasonous Canadian politicians now hold important posts in Canada’s Parliament(the Isreali allies caucus), Supreme Court, and the CBC.
Hard Proof of Israeli involvement in 9/11 Posted by anarchore on February 26, 2008founat;http://www.thebirdman.org/Index/Temp/Temp911WasAnOperationNorthwoodsHenri.htm
Fox News has allegedly reported that Terror state Israel Involved in 911 Posted by anarchore on March 30, 2007 Updated: June 27, 2007 .Accordingly Israeli were arrested in connection with 9/11but were then released under pressure by ADL.
You tube has pulled the video of the Fox News reports exposing Israeli involvement in 9/11.
9/11 having all the signs of having been an “Operation Northwood” type event. Flag operation (Northwood) was called through a remotecontrolled “airliner” purportedly carrying American “students”, but inreality was empty of passengers and was to be detonated in close proximity to Cuba. The Cuban MiGs would be blamed for “shooting” it down, thereby”justifying” an American invasion of that country.
What’s even more incredible about “Northwood” was that the plan called forgangs of paid “terrorists” toactually run wild through Miami’s streetsshooting innocent American civilians in order to exacerbate the effect ofCuban “hostility” by terrifying innocent American citizens and therebygalvanize maximum support at home for the planned invasion.
There have been numerous firsthand reports of car bombs going off in thestreets on 9/11 as panic caused by the aircraft impacts rapidly spreadacross the city.
If there is still any doubt as to the real intentions of Israel, then please see this statement issued by David Ben Gurion, the first Israeli Prime Minister. His words, as printed in the Jewish Chronicle, 9 August 1967, leave nothing to imagination:
“The world Zionist movement should not be neglectful of the dangers of Pakistan to it”.
“It is essential that we…strike and crush Pakistanis, enemies of Jews and Zionism, by all disguised and secret plans.” – David Ben Gurion, the first Israeli Prime Minister.
With, the permission, of Mr. Saeedi Tariq, to reprint excerpts, from his special report, that appeared first in The Balochistan Post. www.balochistanpost.com.
“This lover of the Arabs is more dangerous to us than the Arabs themselves.”
“For that matter, it is most essential for the world Zionism that it should now take immediate steps against Pakistan.”
“Whereas the inhabitants of the Indian peninsula are Hindus”
“Whose hearts have been full of hatred towards Muslims?”
“India is the most important base for us to work there from, against Pakistan”.
“It is essential that we exploit this base and strike and crush Pakistanis”
“The enemies of Jews and Zionism, by all disguised, and secret plans.”
“First target, for this ideological State is a threat to our existence.”
“And Pakistan, the whole of it, hates the Jews and loves the Arabs.”
Previous war against religious extremists could have been a laudable goal but it seemed to target only those elements which could have brought a semblance of moderation to the religious swatch cutting across Pakistan society. Thus leaving, the entire, field, wide open, for, the extremists.
- India and Pakistan have routinely accused each other of responsibility for organizing bombings and sponsoring civil unrest in the other country.
- The allegations are always strongly rebutted.
- This brings us to the other reason for the Jewish Hindu friendship.
- Israel knows that the Hindus are the dominant group, at least numbers wise, in the Middle East.
- In UAE, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain and Kuwait they are very strong businessmen and hold strategic positions in many institutions.
- In Medina in Saudi Arabia, the best hotel closest to the Prophet’s mosque is owned by a Hindu – the Oberoi.
- These Hindus are a very effective third column in these Gulf States providing a wealth of information and ready for subversive action when required.
- One of the greatest abilities of Mossad is that it can mobilize US resources anywhere to protect Israeli interests.
- Jewish Michael Savage. Zionofascist radio host at Neocon talk radio pitbull says, We are all in danger of annihilation by the Islamic hordes, to describe a fundamentalist Islamic ideology of conquest. Mr Savage has recently been calling for nuclear strikes against Iran.
In summary, R.A.W. over the years has admirably fulfilled its tasks of destabilizing target states through the unbridled export of terrorism.
- It goes to its credit that it has accomplished its assigned objectives due to the endemic weakness in the state apparatus of these nations and the failures of their leaders.
- The Daily Mail has credibly cited and as written by Isha Khan, Dhaka, Bangladesh September 12, 2007.
- “Highly informed sources revealed that the US, the French and the British counter terrorism specialists, who were constantly keeping a very vigilant eye on the affairs of the Indian intelligence agencies, particularly Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), very strongly believe that while the Indian Government and its political leadership has constantly been claiming to be the champion of the cause of anti-terrorist campaigns, its own intelligence agencies have been causing first degree terrorist activities not only in the neighboring countries but even beyond the regional ambits, making India a Numero Uno state, sponsoring organized terrorism in different parts of the world mainly targeting Pakistan, either covertly orovert
- It It is learnt that the investigators are convince on killing of the French Naval engineers ,in Karachi as an activity carried out by a very cunning enemy of Pakistan who desires to strongly harm Pakistan’s foreign collaborated Defence projects and its further enhancements in this field.
- They are of the view that the attack might have been planned by the Indians when they started their new Naval ventures with Russian and Israeli collaboration, which includes the assembling of a powerful electro accelerating machine i.e. Kilo-Ampere Liner Injector(KALI)etc.
- It is learnt that after September 11 incident RAW is mainly using ex-KHAD operators to carry out subversive activities in different parts of the world particularly Pakistan.
- The intelligence officials of the above mentioned countries are of the firm view that even if the terrorists behind incident are of different origins, they are surely having a full backing of a highly organized agency who prepared a fool-proof plan for them.
- The Daily Mail findings indicate that there is a great resentment and disliking for RAW among the International Intelligence community as RAW operates in a Mafia style, each time overstepping the limits of Intelligence operations.
- The RAW has not only indulged in cross border terrorism, it has also played a very significant role in creating and funding militant and terrorist political and under cover extremist religious parties within India and other countries of the region.
- It plays a key role not only in the national politics but also tries to have an impact on the political life of other regional countries.
According to the Daily Mail findings,
- RAW is the godfather of some hostile and terrorist political and fundamentalist parties of India including the Hindu Dharma Raksha Samiti (HDRS), Bajrang Dal (BD) Rashtria Sawayamsevak Sankh (RSS) Shiv Sena (SS) etc.
- RAW not only played a vital role in establishing and organizing these parties but it constantly financing and patronizing them with full strength.
- The agency uses these parties not only to carve out a role for itself in the internal politics but to divert the international focus from its terrorist activities.